Chapter 13 notes S10

Chapter 13 notes S10 - Chapter Thirteen Physical Properties Of Solutions 1 2 Types of Solutions Solvent Solute Solution Solubility Larger portion

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1 Chapter Thirteen Physical Properties Of Solutions
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2 Types of Solutions Solvent: Larger portion of a solution Solute: Smaller portion of a solution Solution: A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more compounds Solubility: Measure of maximum amount of solute in solution
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3 Solubility Terms Saturated solution Maximum amount of solute that stays in solution Any additional will precipitate Unsaturated solution Contains less solute than in saturated solution Supersaturated solution more solute than in saturated solution Extremely unstable Crystallization Extra solute in supersaturated solution precipitates Forms crystals Precipitation Solid comes out of solution, not always a crystal
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4 Solubility As A Function Of Temperature
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5 Fractional Crystallization You have 90 g KNO 3 contaminated with 10 g NaCl. Fractional crystallization: 1. Dissolve salt in 100 mL H 2 O at 60 0 C 2. Cool solution to 0 0 C 3. NaCl will stay in solution (s = 34.2g/100g) 4. 78 g of PURE KNO 3 will precipitate (s = 12 g/100g) 90 g – 12 g = 78 g
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6 Solvent/Solute Intermolecular Forces and Polarity The rule of thumb is that "like dissolves like.” Intermolecular forces strongest for similar compounds Polar solvent/polar solute Nonpolar solvent/nonpolar solute Solvent and solute are “miscible” Fully dissolve in one another Stable as a solution Examples: water/methanol solutions Dissolution of ionic salts in H 2 O CCl 4 in benzene, C 6 H 6
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7 Concentration Units Molarity (M): Moles solute divided by the volume (L) of solution Unit: mol/L Percent by mass Grams solute divided by the amount of solution (in grams) multiplied by 100% Unitless: mass units cancel out Molality ( m ) Denominator is kg solvent, not solution! Removes temperature dependence as it is mass based Unit: mol/Kg solvent
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8 A 14.00% by mass acetic acid solution has a density of 1.020 g/mL. What is its molarity? Molarity
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2010 for the course CHM 101 taught by Professor Geldart during the Spring '07 term at Rhode Island.

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Chapter 13 notes S10 - Chapter Thirteen Physical Properties Of Solutions 1 2 Types of Solutions Solvent Solute Solution Solubility Larger portion

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