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October_15_Chapts_16-17 - Chapters 16-17 PCR Polymerase...

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Chapters 16-17 + PCR
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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 2 ways to get many copies of DNA: Cloning (plasmids, viruses) Amplification (PCR) PCR: Kary Mullis, 1984, 1993 Nobel Prize Involves thermocycling Many uses include forensic applications, paternity tests, conservation biology
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PCR Components of PCR include: DNA polymerase Primers Template DNA Nucleotides Google: “PCR song” http://www.sumanasinc.com/webconten t/anisamples/molecularbiology/pcr.html
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PCR involves repeated cycles of PCR involves repeated cycles of a 3 step process: a 3 step process: 1. Denature --PCR mixture is heated to around 95 ° C to separate the complementary DNA strands from each other. 2. Anneal --temperature is reduced to 50-60 ° C to allow the primers to bind to the template DNA. 3. Elongate --temperature is raised slightly to about 70 ° C to allow the polymerase to replicate the template DNA starting at the primers.
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PCR
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Sample genetics problem – sex linkage & epistasis In squirrels, eye color is determined by a sex-linked gene with two alleles: (R) for red eyes that are completely dominant to (r) for white eyes. In turn, fur color is determined by two autosomal genes that are epistatic such that A_B_ individuals are brown, whereas all others are white. A trihybrid female is crossed with a red-eyed male who is doubly heterozygous for fur color. Predict the phenotypes and phenotype frequencies for their offspring.
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In a certain mouse species, toenail shape is determined by a single gene with two alleles: (S) for square nails, which is completely dominant to (s) for round nails. In turn, ear color is determined by a single gene with two alleles: (G) for gray, which is completely dominant to (g) for white ears. The two genes are incompletely linked to the same autosome with a map distance of 16 cM. A doubly heterozygous TRANS male is test crossed. Given this test cross, predict the phenotype frequencies for this test cross.
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