Lecture_2_Moodle (1)

Lecture_2_Moodle (1) - Introduction to the History and...

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1 Introduction to the History  and Science of Psychology Modules 1 – 3 
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2 Psychology Today We define psychology today as the scientific  study of behavior  (what we do) and mental  processes  (inner thoughts and feelings).
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3 Impression of Psychology  Hoping to satisfy curiosity, many people listen to  talk-radio counselors and psychics to know about  others and themselves. Dr. Crane (radio-shrink) http://www.nbc.com http://www.photovault.com Psychic (Ball gazing)
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4 The Need for Psychological Science Many of us believe that intuition and common sense are  enough to bring forth answers about human nature. Although intuition and common sense may aid  queries, they are not free of error.
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5 Limits of Intuition Personal interviewers tend  to be overconfident of  their “gut feelings” about  job applicants. Taxi/ Getty Images
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6 Hindsight Bias  is the “I-knew-it-all-along”  phenomenon.   We tend to believe, after learning about an outcome,  that we would have foreseen it. We knew that the  dot.com stocks would plummet, only after they did. Hindsight Bias
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7 Overconfidence We tend to think we know  more than we actually do.  Anagram BARGE GRABE ENTRY ETYRN WATER WREAT How long do you think would  it take to unscramble these  anagrams? People said about 10 seconds.  On average they took about 3  minutes (Goranson, 1978).
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8 The Scientific Attitude The scientific attitude is composed of  curiosity  (passion  for exploration),  skepticism  (doubting and questioning)  and  humility  (humbleness to accept when wrong).
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9 Theory  is   an explanation that integrates  principles, organizes and predicts behaviors or  events. For example, low self-esteem contributes to  depression. Theory
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10 Hypothesis  is a testable prediction, often induced  by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or  revise the theory. People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more  depressed. Hypothesis
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11 Research  would require us to administer tests of  self esteem and depression to people. Individuals  who score low on self-esteem measures and high  on depression tests, would confirm our  hypothesis. Research Observations
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12 Research Process
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13 Research Strategies: How Psychologists  Ask and Answer Questions Description The Case Study The Survey Naturalistic Observation Correlation Correlation and Causation Illusory Correlation Perceiving Order in Random Events
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14 Research Strategies: How Psychologists  Ask and Answer Questions Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Evaluating Therapies Independent and Dependent Variables Statistical Reasoning Describing Data Making Inferences
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15 Description Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to 
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Lecture_2_Moodle (1) - Introduction to the History and...

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