Exam 2 Cheat Sheet - Main components of our solar system 1 sun 8 planets 5 known dwarf planets 160 moons countless small solar system objects Planets(1

Exam 2 Cheat Sheet - Main components of our solar system 1...

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Main components of our solar system: 1 sun, 8 planets, 5 known dwarf planets, 160+ moons, countless small solar system objectsPlanets: (1) orbit a star (2) massive enough to be a sphere (3) cleared its orbit/path other than moonsDwarf Planets: (1) & (2), (3) has not yet cleared neighborhood around orbit (4) is not a moonTerrestrial Planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth Mars Jovian Planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (blue from methane)Mercury: only slightly bgiger than our moon, covered in craters highly cratered-- geological activity has stopped, surface is oldVenus: closest planet in size/mass to the earth, hottest surface due to high CO2concentrationsEarth: liquid oceans make us uniqueMars: frozen dessert, has seasons, weather, polar caps, volcanoes, canyons like earthAsteroid Belt: doughnut shaped ring of asteroids in orbitAsteroid: rocky airless worlds orbitting the sun, formed within the frostline Ceresis largest known asteroid, large enough for gravity to shape it into a sphere; a Dwarf Planet [very sparse: 1mil km between them]Comets: icy small particles which heat up when they pass by the sun, outgassing producing bright light Jupiter/Saturn: Gas GiantGigantic compared to Earth w/ thick atmospheres, quick rotation (10hr days)Neptune/Uranus: Ice GiantsMade from H ‘ices’ (H2O, CH4, NH3) and He-- much less dense than Earth, extensive moon systemsGreat Red Spot:persistent storm present on Jupiter for 185 years or more, 22 degrees south of equator 2x Earth sizeGalilean Moons: Io- no impact craters, most volcanically active Europa- icy surface no craters likely deep ocean Ganymede- Largest moon in solar system > mercury old heavily cratered Callisto- heavily cratered from heavy bombardmentTidal forcesstretch jovian moons keeping interior hot & reheating their surfacesTitan Saturn’s moon-- only moon in solar system with ansignificant atmosphere Triton neptune’s moon which didn’t form in orbit around the planet and orbits in opposite direction of neptune (uncommon)Kupier Belt: disk-shaped region of icy bodies near Neptune’s orbit (Plutois found here, Eris as well, an icy object)Oort Cloud: spherical cloud of billions of icy bodies over 20km diameter extending up to 50,000 AU from the SunSaturn’s Rings: extensive planetary ring system around Saturn made of billion ice particles (99.9% pure water) 1cm-10m in diameter. No more than 10m wide, appear to disappear when looked at straight on Particles clump together; aggregates are continually forming and dispersing. Shepard Moonsare paired and orbit within Saturn’s rings, keeping particles in placeMain: A&B rings are densest separated by Cassini Division-C ring, wide faint ring inside BDusty: innermost rings, small dust particles F-Ring- outermost ring outside the A-ringSolar System Nebulae: Nebulais a cloud of gas & dust in outspace, visible in night sky as indistinct bright patch or dark silhouette against luminous matterComposition-- 98% helium/hydrogen, 2% other heavier elementsNebular Hypothesis-- in 1755 Immanuel Kant hypothesized the solar system formed from gravitational collapse of a cloud of dust

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