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final metabolic

final metabolic - Bibc 102 Final Review 1 Final Review...

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Bibc 102 Final Review 1 Final Review Sheet Concepts that you should be able to know: o Citric Acid Cycle: know all the structures, intermediates, enzymes, how many NADH, GTP, and FADH2 are made?! Also, use the pneumonic CIASSFMO to help you remember! Be able to track the carbons from the acetyl CoA throughout one turn of the cycle; where does it occur? Glyoxylate cycle: Be able to compare rxns of this cycle to the TCA cycle...isocitrate lyase… Net: 2 molecules of acetyl CoA converted to succinate; where does this occur, what is the purpose? o Electron Transport Chain: be able to draw the whole chain including all five complexes and know what these complexes do; which pump H+; what are the inhibitors and enhancers of the complexes and be able to interpret the graph associated with this o P/O ratio: What is it? What does it mean? What are theoretical vs. experimental values and why? P/O of NADH vs. P/O of succinate/FADH2? What is different about thermoregulation-thermogenin…hibernation, etc? o Mitchell’s chemiosmotic hypothesis/ ATP Synthase: Be able to draw it’s orientation in mitochondria, chloroplasts, bacterium. Understand its purpose, and basics on how it contributes to the P/O ratio. What inhibits this complex? o ATP count: use the P/O ratio to figure out ATP is made from glycolysis to Pyruvate Dehydrogenase to TCA to ETC. Why is the P/O 1.5 for NADH produced in the cytosol? o NADH transport diagrams: from cytosol to matrix/ shuttle of ATP from IMS to matrix o Gluconeogenesis: know the 3 bypass rxns. What is biotin a cofactor for? o Regulation of Fru6P to Fru1,6bisP by Fru2,6 bisP by PFK2 and FBPase 2. Understand diagrams associated with this regulation o Pentose Phosphate Pathway: the 3 oxidative and 1 non-oxidative step o Photosynthesis: a few definitions, understand the diagram of excitation transfer and photo oxidation. o Light Reactions: The Z scheme, be able to draw it and know the intermediates in the pathway and what the end product is…what is cyclic photophosphorylation? o Dark Reactions: Understand the aldolase, phosphotase, and transketolase rxns that lead up to the formation of ribose 5P and xylulose 5P…these are then converted to ribulose 1,5 bisP how? Overall is 5 3Carbon molecules to 3 5Carbon molecules. o Calvin Cycle: What are the reactions? Which are similar to gluconeogenesis? What is special about Rubisco? o DHAP shuttle system…why? If in stroma vs. in the cytosol what does it contribute to? o Photorespiration-if Rubisco recognizes O2 instead of CO2 what happens? What undesirable product to we get and what needs to be used to fix this? o C4 plants-What do they do to overcome competition with O2? o Regulation of various enzymes using Ferrodoxin. How does light activate the enzymes? o B oxidation: know all the rxns, including activation…also know which rxns are similar to the TCA cycle rxns. Where does B oxidation occur? Know use of carnitine shuttle to transport fatty acids. Also understand how to deal with unsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, uneven # carbons, etc. Where do we degrade really long fatty
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