Chapter 17 outline.doc - BIO 202IN Human Anatomy and Physiology II Chapter 17 Blood Blood Composition \u2022 Blood is a fluid connective tissue composed of

Chapter 17 outline.doc - BIO 202IN Human Anatomy and...

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BIO 202IN: Human Anatomy and Physiology IIChapter 17:BloodBlood CompositionBlood is a fluid connective tissue composed ofPlasma Formed elementsErythrocytes (red blood cells, or RBCs) Leukocytes (white blood cells, or WBCs) PlateletsHematocritPercent of blood volume that is comprised of RBCs 47% ± 5% for males42% ± 5% for femalesPhysical Characteristics and VolumeColor: scarlet to dark redpH 7.35 – 7.4538C8% of body weightAverage volume: 5–6 L for males, and 4–5 L for femalesFunctions of Blood1. Blood transports and distributes:O2and nutrients to body cellsCO2 and metabolic wastes to the lungs and kidneys for eliminationHormones from endocrine organs to target organs2. Blood helps regulate:Body temperature by distributing heatpH using buffersFluid volume and blood pressure3. Blood protects against:Blood lossClot formation by plasma proteins and platelets Infection Antibodies, plasma proteins, WBCsBlood Plasma90% waterContains over 100 dissolved solutesPlasma proteins are most abundant solutes and mostly produced by the liver and remain in blood60% albumin: carrier molecules in blood, major contributor to blood osmolality36% globulins: gamma globulins are antibodies3/25/2020Page 1
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BIO 202IN: Human Anatomy and Physiology II4% fibrinogen: clotting factorNitrogenous waste products like lactic acid and ureaNutrients like glucose, amino acids, and fatty acidsElectrolytes like Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl, HCO3Respiratory gases: O2and CO2Hormones like estrogen, testosterone and insulinFormed ElementsCellular component of bloodWBCs, RBCs and plateletsFormed elements originate in bone marrow Most formed elements have a limited lifespanErythrocytesDesigned for gas transportBiconcave discs, no nucleus or other common organellesFilled with hemoglobin (Hb) Plasma membrane proteins provide flexibility and all RBC to change shape Are the major factor contributing to blood viscosityStructural characteristics contribute to gas transport Biconcave shape: increases surface area relative to volume97% hemoglobin (not counting water)No mitochondria; ATP production is anaerobicA superb example of the complementarity of structure and function Erythrocyte FunctionRBCs transport respiratory gases (O2 and CO2) transportHemoglobin binds reversibly with oxygen Hemoglobin structureHemoglobin is mostly proteinGlobin is the protein componentHeme pigment bonded to each globin chainIron atom in the center each heme can bind to one O2moleculeThere are 4 hemes per hemoglobin moleculeTherefore each Hb molecule can transport four O2Hemoglobin (Hb)O2loading in the lungsProduces oxyhemoglobin (ruby red)O2unloading in the tissuesProduces deoxyhemoglobin or reduced hemoglobin (dark red) 3/25/2020Page 2
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BIO 202IN: Human Anatomy and Physiology IICO2loading in the tissuesProduces carbaminohemoglobin (binds to protein part of hemoglobin)
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