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_ap06_physicsb_sg - AP® Physics B 2006 Scoring Guidelines...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Physics B 2006 Scoring Guidelines The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, AP Central, APCD, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service, CollegeEd, connect to college success, MyRoad, SAT Professional Development, SAT Readiness Program, and Setting the Cornerstones are trademarks owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES General Notes About 2006 AP Physics Scoring Guidelines 1. The solutions contain the most common method of solving the free-response questions and the allocation of points for this solution. Some also contain a common alternate solution. Other methods of solution also receive appropriate credit for correct work. 2. Generally, double penalty for errors is avoided. For example, if an incorrect answer to part (a) is correctly substituted into an otherwise correct solution to part (b), full credit will usually be awarded. One exception to this may be cases when the numerical answer to a later part should be easily recognized as wrong, e.g., a speed faster than the speed of light in vacuum. 3. Implicit statements of concepts normally receive credit. For example, if use of the equation expressing a particular concept is worth 1 point, and a student’s solution contains the application of that equation to the problem but the student does not write the basic equation, the point is still awarded. However, when students are asked to derive an expression, it is normally expected that they will begin by writing one or more fundamental equations, such as those given on the AP Physics exam equation sheet. See pages 21–22 of the AP Physics Course Description for a description of the use of such terms as “derive” and “calculate” on the exams, and what is expected for each. 4. The scoring guidelines typically show numerical results using the value g = 9.8 m s 2 , but use of 10 m s 2 is of course also acceptable. Solutions usually show numerical answers using both values when they are significantly different. 5. Strict rules regarding significant digits are usually not applied to numerical answers. However, in some cases answers containing too many digits may be penalized. In general, two to four significant digits are acceptable. Numerical answers that differ from the published answer due to differences in rounding throughout the question typically receive full credit. Exceptions to these guidelines usually occur when rounding makes a difference in obtaining a reasonable answer. For example, suppose a solution requires subtracting two numbers that should have five significant figures and that differ starting with the fourth digit (e.g., 20.295 and 20.278). Rounding to three digits will lose the accuracy required to determine the difference in the numbers, and some credit may be lost. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 2 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 15 points total (a) Distribution of points 3 points For the 4 kg mass: For two correctly labeled vertical vectors, one up and one down, and no horizontal vectors For the 8 kg mass: For two correctly labeled vertical vectors, one up and one down For two correctly labeled horizontal vectors, one left and one right Note: Labels could be in words, symbols, or correct numerical values. The two masses were considered independently. It was not necessary to indicate that the tension forces had the same magnitudes or that the weights were different. (b) 1 point 1 point 2 points nd For a correct approach using Newton’s 2 law and the static equilibrium condition for the 4 kg mass that leads to a relationship between tension and weight T = mg ( T = (4.0 kg ) 9.8 m s2 1 point ) For the correct answer T = 39 N (40 N using g = 10 m s2 ) (c) 1 point 1 point 3 points nd For a correct application of Newton’s 2 law and the static equilibrium condition for the 8 kg mass leading to a relationship between tension from part (b) and spring force T = FS = k Dx k = T Dx For using the correct displacement of the spring from equilibrium Dx = 0.25 m - 0.20 m = 0.05 m For a correct calculation leading to a positive value of k using the tension from (b) k = 39 N 0.05 m k = 780 N m ( 800 N m using 40 N from part (b) ) 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 3 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (continued) Distribution of points (d) 2 points For a correct kinematic approach for an accelerating system applied to the 4 kg mass 1 y = gt 2 2 t = 2y g ( t = 2 (0.70 m ) 9.8 m s2 ) For the correct answer t = 0.38 s (0.37 s using g = 10 m s2 ) Note: An alternate approach using conservation of energy to determine the speed at the bottom and then use of a kinematic equation for time could also earn full credit. (e) 1 point 2 points For a correct approach to calculating the frequency (f or w ) of a mass-spring system k 1 1k OR w = f= = m T 2p m 7 80 N m 1 78 0 N m OR ω = f= 2p 8.0 kg 8.0 kg For a correct value of frequency (f or w ) consistent with the value of k from part (c) f = 1.6 Hz OR w = 10 rad/s (f) 1 point 1 point 1 point 2 points For using conservation of energy, setting the spring potential energy equal to the kinetic energy of the block 1 1 mu 2 = kA2 2 2 k u= A m 780 N m u= (0.05 m ) 8.0 kg For a correct calculation of speed consistent with the value of k from part (c) and the correct displacement from equilibrium u = 0.49 m s ( 0.50 m s using 800 N m from part (c) ) (Global) 1 point For correct units and a reasonable number of digits in all numerical answers obtained (must have at least one final numerical answer to earn this point) 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 4 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 15 points total Distribution of points Two general approaches were used by most of the students. Approach A: Spread the students out every 10 meters or so. The students each start their stopwatches as the runner starts and measure the time for the runner to reach their positions. Analysis variant 1: Make a position vs. time graph. Fit the parabolic and linear parts of the graph and establish the position and time at which the parabola makes the transition to the straight line. Analysis variant 2: Use the position and time measurements to determine a series of average velocities ( uavg = Dx Dt ) for the intervals. Graph these velocities vs. time to obtain a horizontal line and a line with positive slope. Establish the position and time at which the sloped and horizontal lines intersect. Analysis variant 3: Use the position and time measurements to determine a series of ( ) average accelerations Dx = u0 t - at 2 2 . Graph these accelerations vs. time to obtain two horizontal lines, one with a nonzero value and one at zero acceleration. Establish the position and time at which the acceleration drops to zero. Approach B: Concentrate the students at intervals at the end of the run, in order to get a very precise value of the constant speed u f , or at the beginning in order to get a ( ) 2 precise value for au . The total distance D is given by D = au tu 2 + u f (T - tu ) , where T is the total measured run time. In addition, u f = au tu . These equations can be solved for au and tu (if u f is measured directly) or υ f and tu (if au is measured directly). Students may have also defined and used distances, speeds, and times for the accelerated and constant-speed portions of the run in deriving these relationships. (a) 2 points For checking off a distance-measuring device and describing its use in part (b) For checking off a stopwatch and describing its use in part (b) 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 5 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (continued) Distribution of points (b) 6 points Sample response Use the tape measure and chalk to mark off the 100 meters in 10 meter lengths. Set a classmate with a stopwatch at marks as shown. Use the starter’s pistol to signal the runner to run and the classmates to start their stopwatches. Each person turns off the stopwatch when the runner reaches his or her mark. You then have measurements of the time to reach each increment of 10 meters. For taking distance measurements for 8 to 11 distinct fixed positions per run For measuring time for the same 8 to 11 distinct fixed positions, consistent with the description of the experimental setup For an experimental technique consistent with being able to determine the requested quantities For a diagram of the experimental setup with clear labels and consistent with the technique described (awarded even if the technique is wrong) For a technique that allows data for all positions to be taken in a single run (c) 1 point 1 point 2 points 1 point 1 point 7 points Approach A For a clear and detailed explanation of the data analysis process Note: This part of the solution was graded holistically and students could earn between 0 and 3 points depending on the clarity and completeness of their explanation. For equations or clear prose and use of the data to identify the two distinct regions of motion (constant acceleration and constant velocity) For clearly and correctly identifying tu For clearly and correctly identifying au For having the final answers correct and no incorrect statements or calculations among the correct ones 3 points 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 6 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (continued) Distribution of points (c) (continued) Approach B Students needed to clearly indicate which variable was used (acceleration or final velocity) by including the following. For a description or diagram that clearly defines all the variables being used For a description or diagram showing how the needed variable (acceleration or final velocity) will be determined For a successful transformation of the above description into equation form For correctly solving the equations obtained For work that would determine a correct value of au For work that would determine a correct value of tu 1 point 1 point 2 points 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 7 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 15 points total (a) Distribution of points 2 points For checking “Positive” For a correct justification (point only awarded if “Positive” checked) Example: At point P, the electric field due to charge q1 points to the right because electric fields point toward negative charges. The field from q2 must point to the left, i.e., away from the charge, to cancel the field from q1 . So q2 must be positive. Point is not awarded if the justification is “charges cancel each other out.” (b) 1 point 1 point 4 points For a correct equation for electric field strength of a point charge 1 qi E= 4 p 0 ri2 1 point For showing that the sum of the electric fields at P is zero 1 q1 1 q2 0= + 2 2 4 p 0 d1 4 p 0 d2 1 point 1 q2 1 q1 =2 2 4 p 0 d2 4 p 0 d1 q2 = - 2 d2 q 21 d1 For correct substitution of values 1 point (0.40 m ) -3.0 ¥ 10 -9 C ( ) (0.10 m )2 2 q2 = - For the correct answer q2 = +4.8 ¥ 10 -8 C (c) 1 point 3 points For writing Coulomb’s law 1 q1q2 F= 4p 0 r 2 For correct substitution of given values and the charge found in part (b) ( F2 = 9.0 ¥ 109 N im 2 C2 ) (3.0 ¥ 10 C) (48 ¥ 10 C) -9 1 point 1 point -9 (0.30 m )2 F2 = 1.4 ¥ 10 -5 N For a direction consistent with the answer to part (a) The electric force on q2 is to the left (or to the right if the answer to part (a) is “Negative”) 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 8 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (continued) Distribution of points (d) 4 points For showing that the sum of the potentials is zero V1 + V2 = 0 For using the point charge formula for electric potential q q V= OR V = k 4 p 0r r 1 q1 1 q2 + =0 4 p 0 r1 4 p 0 r2 For correctly substituting values into the equation above, including q1 , the value of q2 from part (b), and distances in the denominators that sum to 0.3 m and include a valid distance variable Example: 1 -3.0 ¥ 10 -9 C 1 48 ¥ 10 -9 C + =0 4 p 0 ( 0.30 m - d ) 4 p 0 d 1 point 1 point 1 point ( ( ) ) d (3.0 ¥ 10 C) = ( 0.30 m - d ) (48 ¥ 10 C) (48 ¥ 10 C + 3.0 ¥ 10 C) d = (0.30 m) (48 ¥ 10 C) (0.30 m ) (48 ¥ 10 C) d= (48 ¥ 10 C + 3.0 ¥ 10 C) d -3.0 ¥ 10 -9 C = - ( 0.30 m - d ) 48 ¥ 10 -9 C -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9 d = 0.28 m For finding a value for x within the range -0.1 m < x < 0.2 m Note: This point was only awarded if the substitution point was awarded x = 0.20 m - 0.28 m= - 0.08 (e) 1 point 2 points For stating that net work done is zero For a correct justification Example: W = DU = q DV . Since the potential is zero at infinity and is also zero at the final position, DV = 0 . Therefore W = 0 . 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 9 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 15 points total (a) Distribution of points 2 points Trial qi sin qi sin qr 1 30 o 20 o 0.50 0.34 2 40 o 27 o 0.64 0.45 3 50 o 32 o 0.77 0.53 4 60 o 37 o 0.87 0.60 5 70 o 40 o 0.94 0.64 qr For identifying that both quantities to be graphed are the sines of the angles For correctly calculating the sines using degrees (b) 1 point 1 point 4 points Example: For correctly labeling both axes with the sines of the angles For correctly labeling both axes with appropriate numerical scales For plotting the five points For correctly drawing a best fit line that includes the entire range of data points and may extend beyond them 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 10 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (continued) Distribution of points (c) 4 points For a statement or implicit use of Snell’s Law n1 sin qi = n2 sin qr (or sin qi = n2 sin qr since n1 = nair = 1 ) For indicating that the index of refraction n can be obtained from the slope or inverse of the slope depending on choice of variable plotted on each axis Example using graph above sin qi 1 = n= sin qr slope For using two sets of points directly from the line to find the slope 0.53 - 0.41 slope = = 0.67 0.78 - 0.60 For a correct calculation of the index of refraction consistent with the slope of the graph n = 1 0.67 = 1.5 (d) 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point For checking “The air-oil interface only” (e) 1 point 1 point 4 points For indicating that the optical path difference between the waves reflecting off the air-oil interface and the oil-water interface is one-half wavelength D =l2 For indicating that the wave reflecting off the oil-water interface travels a distance equal to twice the thickness of the oil D = 2t For indicating that the wavelength of the light in the oil film is different from the wavelength of the light in air l film = lair n film 1 point 1 point 1 point The three equations above are combined to relate the film thickness to the wavelength. 2t = l film 2 = lair 2 n film t = lair 4n film t = 6.0 ¥ 10 -7 m 4(1.43) For the correct answer with appropriate units 1 point -7 t = 1.05 ¥ 10 m = 105 nm Notes: A student who checked “The oil-water interface only” in part (d) and then correctly calculated a wavelength of 105 nm for the thickness of the oil was awarded full credit. A student who checked “Both interfaces” or “Neither interface” in part (d) and then correctly calculated a wavelength of 210 nm for the thickness of the oil was awarded full credit. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 11 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 10 points total Distribution of points (a) (i) 2 points From the ideal gas law PV = nRT PV For recognizing that is constant throughout the cycle T Using the fact that pressure is the same for states 1 and 2 V1 V2 = T1 T2 VT T2 = 2 1 V1 For substituting correct values into a correct expression T2 = 0.50 m 3 (373 K ) 0.25 m 3 ( ) ( ) 1 point 1 point T2 = 746 K Note: Some students earned the first point by correctly calculating the value of n or the product nR using the given conditions in state 1. The student could have then proceeded to the correct substitutions in both parts (i) and (ii). (ii) 1 point Using the fact that volume is the same for states 1 and 3 P P 1 =3 T1 T3 P3T1 P 1 For substituting correct values into a correct expression T3 = 1.5 ¥ 10 5 Pa (373 K ) 1.0 ¥ 10 5 Pa T3 = ( ) ( ) 1 point T3 = 560 K © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 12 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 (continued) Distribution of points (b) 4 points Calculate the work done on the gas in each of the three processes making up the cycle. For calculating the work done from state 1 to state 2 given constant pressure 1 point W1Æ 2 = - P DV = -(1.0 ¥ 10 Pa)(0.25 m ) = -25 000 J (negative sign not required) For calculating the work done from state 2 to state 3 using average pressure W2 Æ 3 = - Pavg DV = -(1.25 ¥ 105 Pa)(-0.25 m3 ) = +31250 J (positive sign not required) 1 point Note: A student that correctly calculated the area under the curve for either process earned the point for that process. For noting that no work is done going from state 1 to state 3 or for indicating net work is only contributed in going from state 1 to 2 and state 2 to 3 W3Æ1 = 0 or Wnet = W1Æ 2 + W2 Æ 3 1 point 5 3 For the correct answer with the correct sign Wnet = +6250 J 1 point Alternate solution Alternate points For stating that the net work done is the area of the triangle or for implying such by using 1 point 1 the expression for the area of a triangle, A = baseiheight 2 For correctly substituting the base value from the graph 1 point For correctly substituting the height value from the graph 1 point 1 W = 1.5 ¥ 105 Pa - 1.0 ¥ 105 Pa 0.50 m3 - 0.25 m3 2 For the correct answer with the correct sign 1 point Wnet = +6250 J ( (c) )( ) 3 points For checking “Removed” Note: Checking the box consistent with the sign of the net work calculated in part (b) earned full credit, but checking the incorrect option resulted in no additional credit. For referring to the first law of thermodynamics implicitly or explicitly DU = Q + W For noting that the consequence of the closed thermodynamic cycle is that the internal energy does not change (since the gas ends at the same temperature at which it started), and/or that the heat transferred equals the opposite of the work done on gas DU = 0 or Q = -W This can also be expressed in words. Example: Work is done on the gas, which would add energy to the gas. Heat must be removed in order for the internal energy to be unchanged after one cycle. 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 13 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 6 10 points total (a) Distribution of points 3 points For correctly expressing frequency in terms of speed of light and wavelength, either with symbols or numerical values 3.0 ¥ 108 m/s c f= = = 2.0 ¥ 1016 Hz -8 l 1.5 ¥ 10 m 1 point For substituting the expression for frequency into the equation for the energy of a photon E = hf = (6.63 ¥ 10 -34 J ◊ s)(2.0 ¥ 1016 Hz ) For the correct answer with correct units E = 1.33 ¥ 10 -17 J = 82.7 eV 1 point Alternate solution For correctly expressing the momentum of the photon in terms of Planck’s constant and the wavelength, either with symbols or numerical values 1 point Alternate points 1 point h h 6.63 ¥ 10 -34 J ◊ s = 4.42 ¥ 10 -26 kgim s or p = = p l ¥ 10 -8 m 1.5 For substituting the expression for the momentum into the energy-momentum relationship for a photon E = pc = ( 4.42 ¥ 10 -26 N ◊ s)(3.0 ¥ 108 m/s) For the correct answer with correct units E = 1.33 ¥ 10 -17 J = 82.7 eV l= (b) 1 point 1 point 4 points The kinetic energy of a massive particle is given by 1 K = mu 2 2 For substituting the energy in joules from part (a) as the kinetic energy to calculate the speed of the electron 1 1.33 ¥ 10 -17 J = (9.11 ¥ 10 -31 kg) u 2 2 u = 5.4 ¥ 106 m/s For calculating the momentum of the electron using the speed calculated above p = mu = (9.11 ¥ 10 -31 kg)(5.4 ¥ 106 m/s) For substituting the momentum into the equation for the deBroglie wavelength h h 6.63 ¥ 10 -34 J is = = l= p mu (9.11 ¥ 10 -31 kg)(5.4 ¥ 106 m/s) For the correct answer with correct units l = 1.35 ¥ 10 -10 m 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 14 AP® PHYSICS B 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 6 (continued) Distribution of points (c) 3 points The expected answer is a description of an experiment in which a beam of electrons is aimed at either a single slit, a double slit, a diffraction grating, or a crystal. The student must also describe the interference pattern of maxima and minima appearing on a screen as evidence of the wave nature of the electron. For using a beam of electrons (NOT a single electron) For aiming the electron beam at one of the objects noted above For indicating that the resultant is an interference pattern (a drawing was acceptable) Notes: If the experiment description is completely correct except that it includes a beam of light instead of electrons, it earned two of the three possible points. No points were earned for merely naming an experiment, either in reference to commonly known experimenters (“Davisson–Germer experiment”) or pieces of equipment (“double-slit experiment”). 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 15 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2010 for the course PHY 15166 taught by Professor Mr.donald during the Spring '10 term at 4.1.

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