LECTURE 7 - Metabolism introduction Key features...

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Metabolism - introduction p 277 - 297 Key features: Macromolecules: polymers used for storage Common building blocks: can be exchanged into different polymers
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Metabolism - introduction Digestion of biopolymers: Hydrolysis, hydrolysis, hydrolysis (and sometimes phosphorolysis) p 277 - 297
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Metabolism - introduction p 277 - 297
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Metabolism - introduction p 277 - 297 Energy currency: ATP and NAD
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Reading and problems from Chapter 9 Reading: pp 277 - 297 Highly recommended problem: 5
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Metabolism - introduction p 302 - 330 Focus on glucose (sugar metabolism) and its connection to obesity and diabetes
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Metabolism - glucose p 302 - 330 Most abundant organic molecule on earth
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Metabolism - glycosidic bonds p 302 - 330 Glycosidic bonds: link sugars together Starch and glycogen: - α -linkages -leaves many H-bonds unsatisfied -soluble in water (water fulfills unused H-bonding sites) cellulose: - β -linkages -good intramolecular H-bonds -insoluble in water
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Metabolism - glycosidic bonds p 302 - 330 Starch and glycogen: - α -linkages -leaves many H-bonds unsatisfied -soluble in water (water fulfills unused H-bonding sites) cellulose: - β -linkages -good intramolecular H-bonds -insoluble in water
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Metabolism - glycosidic bonds p 302 - 330 Heparin ( α ) vs. hypersulfated chondroitin sulfate ( β )
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Metabolism - polymer glycogen Digestion of biopolymers: Hydrolysis, hydrolysis, hydrolysis (and sometimes phosphorolysis) p 277 - 297
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Metabolism - glycogen phosphorylase p 302 - 330 The beginning of sugar metabolism: in the liver This enzyme is heavily regulated!
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Metabolism - glycogen phosphorylase p 302 - 330
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Metabolism - phosphoglucomutase p 302 - 330 In most cells: -breakdown of glycogen stops at G-6-P -G-6-P then enters glycolysis In liver: -G-6-P is hydrolyzed to glucose -glucose can then enter bloodstream -delivery and uptake by other cells
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Glycolysis - overview Glucose is taken into cytosol where glycolytic enzymes live Two stages of glycolysis: 1. Reactions 1 to 5 Glucose --> G-3-P (requires 2 ATPs) 2. Reactions 6 to 10 G-3-P --> pyruvate (yields 4 ATP) Net yield = 2ATP + 2 NADH If aerobic, 2NADH --> 6ATP If anaerobic, 2NADH --> heat
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Glycolysis - steps 1 and 2 p 302 - 330 Hexokinase Phosphoglucose isomerase -metabolically irreversible
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