Architecture

Architecture - Architecture 建筑 • Chinese architecture...

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Unformatted text preview: Architecture 建筑 • Chinese architecture has been dominated by 2 concepts – wood frame joined without fasteners or glue – modular concept based on 8 ranks that allowed building parts to be standard size throughout China • Early Chinese architecture drew no distinction between city and wall—the same word referring to both (cheng2 城) • houses usually laid out in north-south axis with main building facing south Shang Dynasty • The linking concept of buildings, walls, and courtyard emerge Zhou Dynasty • Rites of Zhou as a major source for knowledge of Zhou architecture • other sources are uncovered cities and tomb artifacts (replicas of buildings, etc.) • building reflect cosmos: square for earth and round for heaven Warring States • continuation of Zhou practices • practical emphasis on wall building both as protection against other states and against northern nomadic (barbarians) • fantastic palaces, especially tomb structures Qin/Han • first extensive use of iron in Qin • continued work on Great Wall to length of 1,400 miles • standardization meant changes in buildings as well as other areas • Qin Emperor built awesome burial palace (terra-cotta warriors) • beginning of Silk Route trade • poetry of Han dynasty (fu rhapsody) describes palaces of time • much of knowledge of architecture comes from stone depictions in tombs 3 Kingdoms 6 Dynasties • introduction of Buddhist architecture via Silk Route and Vietnam which was now controlled by China (stupa and pagoda) • 12-sided pagoda • beginning of Dunhuang Sui/Tang Dynasties • • • • • • • grand canal splendor of city, Chang’an it is in the Sui that began the curved roof that marks Chinese architecture journey of Xuanzang, the basis for Journey to the West (The Monkey and the Monk) religious tolerance and heyday of silk route led to a variety of architectural styles followed by persecution of Buddhist and loss of most of art and architecture of the day finest examples of Tang architecture and art preserved in Nara Japan near Kyoto (it is during this time that Japan is unified under a single tribe and represents the second and most important wave of influence from China) By Tang cities divided into wards, rectangular walls that enclosed portions of the city. The gates would be closed at evening and opening in morning to control the movements of the population; also each ward could serve as a fortress against an invading army – the exception to the ward divisions of the cities are found in the south where cities sprang up on the sea route of the Silk Route, there is no trace of a ward system; they were multicultural and had excellent land and water routes to and from • standardization of color: roof ridges and eaves were yellow and green, pillars red, window frames green, walls white Song Dynasty • Synthesis of 3 Teachings (Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism) • 1st manual of architecture: Yingzao fashi 《营造法式》 1103 by Li Jie 李诫 • Song capitals were located on waterways, with markets and trade occurring along waterways throughout China • Sage Mother Hall and oldest extant dragon columns (dragons are wood) Yuan • Kublai Khan and the Mongolians • bright colors • first and larger Forbidden City in Beijing Ming Dynasty • Great Wall of China as it is known today • fantastic private estates with gardens Qing Dynasty • Summer Palaces—1st one of late 1700s with foreign curiosities and the 2nd of late 1800s by Empress Cixi Modern • hybrid style of early 20th century • post Mao sees experiments with various Western movements ...
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