Class 14 - Non-Mendelian Inheritance...

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Unformatted text preview: Non-Mendelian Inheritance Mitochondrial/cytoplasmic inheritance Nondisjunction Non-mendelian inheritance of leaf color in 4-o clocks Maternal inheritance, Independent of nuclear genes So far, we have talked about only NUCLEAR genes, but there is also. Fig. 7.16 Cytoplasmic inheritance nucleus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mitochondria and chloroplasts have circular DNA Mitochondria (mt): sites of ATP synthesis mtDNA; genes for special translation proteins genes for ATP biosynthesis proteins Mitochondria Probably derived as an endosymbiant May have come from an anerobic eukaryote that engulfed a bug Bug can generate ATP using oxygen Sequences of mitochondrial DNA are more closely related to eubacteria than to eukaryotes Mitochondrial features Genome 15-16kb in size 5-10 copies per organelle 1000 per cell Encodes 2 rRNAs, 22tRNAs, 13 proteins in humans no introns Found ONLY in the cytoplasm NO WAY TO SEGREGATE!!! Mitochondrial Inheritance Sperm have NO cytoplasm to speak of All mitochondria come from mother During cell division mitochondria are split randomly to daughters If mutant, mutations are usually mixed - called HETEROPLASMY mutation No mutation Organelles are inherited Uniparentally (from one parent only) e.g. mt from mothers in human chloroplast from females in tobacco plants also called maternal inheritance Biparentally (from both parents) e.g. mt from both mating types in yeast chloroplasts in geraniums In humans; maternal inheritance Haploid sperm + haploid egg -> zygote Zygote cytoplasm is almost entirely donated by egg All of mitochondria are from mother Human: phenotypes of mutant mt genes There are others What inheritance for a mt-based disease might...
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Class 14 - Non-Mendelian Inheritance...

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