Class 29 - Genome Arrangements and Rearrangements Pictured...

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Unformatted text preview: Genome Arrangements and Rearrangements Pictured are Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Great Britain with some of their descendants. Repeats fall into two classes Tandem (i.e. rDNA, tDNA, Satellite DNA) and Interspersed (SINES, LINES) Rerun.... 2 Components of the genome Classes of Interspersed Repeats SINES LINES Retroviruses Multigene Families Pseudogenes 3 Essentials Transposition can be mediated by enzymes contained in the transposon Insertion at the new site is generally not sequence specific so can interrupt genes Essentials Transposition can be mediated by enzymes contained in the transposon Insertion at the new site is generally not sequence specific so can interrupt genes Essentials Transposition can be mediated by enzymes contained in the transposon Insertion at the new site is generally not sequence specific so can interrupt genes TE Components of the genome SINES SINES=S hort IN tE rspersed S equences Approximately 5x10 5 copies or ~5% of total human DNA is ONE type called Alu repeats - all together SINES are ~10% of all human DNA! Each repeat is ~300bps and they are ~85% identical to each other Probably result of transposition Components of the genome LINES LINES=Long IN tE rspersed S equences 10 5 X ~4kb length = ~10-15% of genome Arose by retrotransposition of ancestral sequences Requires normal transcription so a hallmark of a retrotransposed sequence is an open reading frame and absence of introns Components of the genome LINES LINES=Long IN tE rspersed S equences 10 5 X ~4kb length = ~10-15% of genome Arose by retrotransposition of ancestral sequences Requires normal transcription so a hallmark of a retrotransposed sequence is an open reading frame and absence of introns Retrotransposition Gene is transcribed normally (spliced too!) Acted on by reverse transcriptase DNA copy is then reinserted into the chromosome randomly Retrotransposition Gene is transcribed normally (spliced too!) Acted on by reverse transcriptase DNA copy is then reinserted into the chromosome randomly Technical sidebar - blotting Technical sidebar - blotting Technical sidebar - blotting Technical sidebar - blotting Technical sidebar - blotting Technical sidebar - blotting You have a new organism and want to find out the arrangment of rDNA. So you cut genomic DNA with an enzyme that cuts at EcoRI sites (GAATTC) about once every 10kb. Then blot and probe with 18S rRNA labeled. What might you conclude from these data? A. Probe is in an interspersed repeated gene that does not have a GAATTC B. Probe is in a tandem repeated gene with one GAATTC per repeat C. Probe is in an interspersed repeated sequence with one GAATTC per repeat D. Probe is recognizing many non-specific DNA squences producing a dark signal You have a new organism and want to find out the arrangment of rDNA. So you cut genomic DNA with an enzyme that cuts at EcoRI sites (GAATTC) about once...
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Class 29 - Genome Arrangements and Rearrangements Pictured...

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