dec3_taboos - Animals in the News INDV101 ‘Language’...

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Unformatted text preview: Animals in the News INDV101 ‘Language’ December 3, 2007 Taboos, swearing and language play INDV101 – Fall 2007 Animals in the News The Remaining Calendar • Weds, December 5, Review for Exam 3 – Last day to do extra credit. – Last lecture, course and teacher evals! evals! • December 7, 5pm – all scores are posted in d2l. – Including extra credit! • December 10, Exam 3 (optional), here 11-1. 11– Review session, December 10, 8811am, SSCI 411 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 1 Review • “Official Language” policies Language” worldwide • History of language policy in the US • “Status Planning” vs. “Corpus Planning” Planning” in language policy Planning” • Relationships between English in the US and indigenous languages • Relationships between English in the US and immigrant languages. INDV101 – Fall 2007 Dog names! (Popular) • German Shepherd + Dalmatian? – Shepmatian or Dalherd • Springer Spaniel + Mastiff? – Springer Mastiff or Springstiff • Border Collie + Rottweiler – Rottwollie or Collieweiler • Chihuahua + Dachsund – Dachuahua or Huahuasund • Old English Sheepdog + Pointer – (Old) Shointer or Sheeper INDV101 – Fall 2007 Dog names! (Original) • German Shepherd + Dalmatian? • Springer Spaniel + Mastiff? • Border Collie + Rottweiler • Chihuahua + Dachsund – Pherdatian (Abby McCallum) – Stiffer Maniel (Angelica PotoPotoDesPortes) DesPortes) – Borderweiler (Kristen Martin) – Chihuahuachsund (Adam Ross) Shifting gears… • Old English Sheepdog + Pointer – Old Shpointer (Nathan Garinger) Garinger) INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 2 Taboos, Swearing, Wordplay • There are several reasons to believe that swearing is linguistically important: – Swearing and acquisition – Swearing and the brain – Swearing and the grammar – Swearing and the culture Swearing and Acquisition • ‘Taboo words’ are words’ acquired early in first language acquisition. • Also, in second language learning. • Second language learners remember taboo words better than other kinds of words. • Why? • Sociolinguistically, the study of Sociolinguistically, swearing and word taboos provides a window into culture… culture… INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Swearing and the Brain • “Swearing is frequently one of the small set of speech functions (automatic speech) selectively preserved in the severely aphasic patient “Swear words and phrases are produced with normal articulation and prosody, in stark contrast to the remaining speech and language disability” disability” (Van Lancker and Cummings, 1999:84) Swearing and the Brain • Other diseases and conditions that (sometimes) selectively affect swearing • Tourette’s syndrome Tourette’ • Certain traumatic brain injuries • Paraplegia • Epilepsy • Some dementias • Klazomania (compulsive shouting) • Sydenham’s chorea Sydenham’ • • INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 3 Swearing and the Grammar • Taboo words sometimes provide crucial evidence for linguistic structures, or themselves show unique grammatical constraints “f***ing infixation” – evidence f***ing infixation” for word-internal rhythmic wordstructures in English What the f***, who the f***, when the f***, where the f***, but, crucially NOT *Which the f*** INDV101 – Fall 2007 Taboo and obscene language • All languages include words which cannot be politely uttered within a particular speech community. • Some such words may be appropriate only within informal registers, or among certain people, or at certain times or places. • Others may be considered inappropriate to utter at any time. • These we’ll refer to as ‘word taboos’; taboo we’ taboos’ words are sometimes considered ‘obscene’ obscene’ INDV101 – Fall 2007 • • • Word taboos • In many societies, people’s names people’ become taboo upon that person’s person’ death – – In Ute, to say a dead person’s person’ name will wake him/her up’ up’ In Navajo, to say a dead person’s person’ name is to invite trouble from that person Word taboos • Want to hear a taboo word of English? • Ursa! Ursa! • How ‘bout one in Latin • Wolf! • (latin has ‘lupus’) lupus’ • “We are dealing with a deepdeepseated belief, fortified by continuous tradition for thousands of years: the belief that there is an essential relation between words and things, - between the name and the object that is called by that name.” (Kittredge 1902) name.” INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 4 Ursa, Lupus • The proto-Indo European roots for ‘bear’ and protobear’ ‘wolf’ were likely *rtko (which became ‘*ursa’ wolf’ ursa’ in Latin, but ‘bär’ in Germanic) and *wlko Germanic) (which became ‘lupus’ in Latin, ‘wolf’ in lupus’ wolf’ Germanic) • These words were subject to ‘hunter taboo’; taboo’ and replaced by euphemisms • (for example, ‘bear’ > ‘bär’ probably meant bear’ ‘brown one’; in Slavic words for bear derive from ‘honey eater’) INDV101 – Fall 2007 Word taboos • Common sources of word taboo, crosscrosslinguistically – Powerful animals (wolf, bear) – Powerful beings & religion (gods, spirits) – Death • Less commonly, cross-linguistically – crossbut often found in European languages – Sexuality and bodily functions INDV101 – Fall 2007 American English Taboos? • • • • • Words for: Body parts Sexual activities Excretion Most religious taboos are less powerful than these. How to curse in Quebecois • Words for sexuality and bodily functions are not taboo. • But if you want to shock someone, say this: • “Oh, tabernacle!” or tabernacle!” “Chalice!” Chalice!” • (But say it in Quebecois) • Taboo words relate to the church (also, in Irish…) Irish… INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 5 Why do we care? • Word taboos tell us about the linguistic ideology of a community • They give us information about the cultural context in which they occur • • • • “7 Dirty Words you can’t say on TV” George Carlin, 1972 – “Filthy Words” Words” Arrested on obscenity charges Act was broadcast uncensored on the radio in 1973 US Supreme Court case “FCC vs Pacifica” Pacifica” 1978 (Stevens wrote for the majority) INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 The Words • • • • • What’s ‘indecent language’? • "[T]he concept of `indecent' is "[T]he intimately connected with the exposure of children to language that describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium, sexual or excretory activities and organs, at organs, times of the day when there is a reasonable risk that children may be in the audience." (FCC vs Pacifica) INDV101 – Fall 2007 Piss Shit T**s F*** And three others that are still strong enough I’m not I’ going to mention them (two are compound words for sexual activities, one a female anatomical term). INDV101 – Fall 2007 6 Taboo words through time • • • • Several of Carlin’s dirty words Carlin’ are now not (as) dirty (20 years) ‘piss’ is now regularly used as a piss’ part of expressions such as ‘pissed off’ off’ ‘shit’ is now heard on primetime, shit’ family hour television ‘t**s’ is a word also commonly t**s’ heard on primetime TV, and elsewhere (although Janet Jackson can tell you about whether the word’s referents are word’ still deemed obscene). INDV101 – Fall 2007 Dirty Words Harm Kids? • This American Life: “propriety” (6:20-17:57) (6:20- Then FCC Commissioner Powell Ira Glass Bono INDV101 – Fall 2007 ‘F-ing Brilliant!’ FCC – ‘Golden Globe’ Decision INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 7 Dr. Timothy Jay Dr. Dirty Words INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Kids & Taboo words? • By far, the winner is… is… • F*** (age 5-12) 5• Sh** (age 7) Sh** • Suck, damn, Jesus (summer camp) • Hell, bitch, bum, ass (day care) INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 8 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 9 Why do we swear? FCC vs. Pacifica • “Second, broadcasting is uniquely accessible to children, even those too young to read. Although Cohen's written message might have been incomprehensible to a first grader, Pacifica's broadcast could have enlarged a child's vocabulary in an instant.” instant. INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Violent behavior, bad words? Jiminy Cricket! Dangnabbit! INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 10 Denotation, connotation • Connotation – ‘The signifying in addition; inclusion of something in the meaning of a word besides what it primarily denotes; implication.’ implication.’ • Denotation – ‘That which a word denotes, as distinguished from its denotes connotation; the aggregate of objects of connotation which a word may be predicated; extension.’ extension.’ INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Expressive Function Son-of-a-gundiddily-un! "And prively he caught hire by the queynte... And heeld hire by the haunchbones." (Canterbury tales) now upon the prick Chaucer, Shakespeare of noon” (Romeo & Juliet) "the bawdy hand of the dial is INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 11 Golden Globes Decision Today • In June, 2007 the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals blocked the Golden Globes decision, ruling that "fleeting expletives" were not covered under obscenity statutes. • FCC: “Offensive words may be profane and/or indecent depending on the context. In the Golden Globe Awards Order, the FCC stated that it would Order, address the legality of broadcast language on a casecaseby-case basis. Depending on the context presented, byuse of the “F-Word” or other words as highly Word” offensive as the “F-Word” may be both indecent and Word” profane, if aired between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m.” p.m.” Swearing, wordplay • Swearing, insulting, teasing and joking are often intertwined with each other • Just as swearing is a universal feature of human language, so too is teasing, joking and word play • Sometimes word play tells us something important about grammar as well. • For example… example… INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Igpay Atinlay • I’ll give you an example: • [tap] [aptej] aptej] • [bel] [elbej] bel] elbej] • [læŋgwədj] ə gw [æŋgwədjlej] gwə lej] • Now you do some! • [sænd] ? nd] • [bebi] ? bebi] INDV101 – Fall 2007 Igpay Atinlay • • • • • • • [spæn] ? [straŋ] ? straŋ [brawn] ? [blæk] ? [kwin] ? kwin] [kjut] ? kjut] (how you treat consonant clusters gives us information about syllable structure in English) INDV101 – Fall 2007 12 Language games targeting syllables (Bagemihl 1989) • Zande – tikpo – vuse kpoti ‘salt’ kpoti salt’ sevu ‘belly’ sevu belly’ ‘sibling’ sibling’ ‘ugly’ ‘welcome’ (no gloss provided) Language games targeting syllables (Bagemihl 1989) • Zande – tikpo tikpo – vuse vuse kpoti ‘salt’ kpoti salt’ sevu ‘belly’ sevu belly’ ‘sibling’ sibling’ ‘ugly’ ‘welcome’ (no gloss provided) • Tagalog • Chaga – kapatid tidpaka tidpaka – paŋit ŋitpa paŋ • Tagalog • Chaga – kapatid tidpaka kapatid tidpaka – paŋit ŋitpa paŋ itpa – kapfo pfoka kapfo pfoka – ihenda ndahei ihenda ndahei – kapfo pfoka pfoka – Ihenda ndahei ndahei INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Language games targeting phonemes (Bagemihl 1989) • Javanese – satus – duwit tasus tasus wudit wudit doti doti wena wena ‘one hundred’ ‘money’ ‘here’ ‘four’ Language games targeting phonemes (Bagemihl 1989) • Javanese – satus – duwit tasus wudit doti wena ‘one hundred’ ‘money’ ‘here’ ‘four’ • Tagalog – dito • Tagalog – dito • Chasu – wane • Chasu – wane INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 13 Language games targeting CV? (Bagemihl 1989) • Hanunoo – balaynun nulayban nulayban – rignuk nugrik nugrik – bi:ŋaw ŋa:biw bi:ŋ ‘domesticated’ ‘tame’ ‘nick’ Language games targeting CV? (Bagemihl 1989) • Hanunoo – balaynun nulayban balaynun nulayban – rignuk nugrik rig nuk rik – bi:ŋaw ŋa:biw bi:ŋ a:biw ‘domesticated’ ‘tame’ ‘nick’ • Finnish – kenkänsä polki – tule sisään ponkansa kelki ‘his shoe ponkansa kicked’ sile tusaan ‘come in’ sile • Finnish – kenkänsä polki kenk polki – tule sisään tule sis ponkansa kelki ‘his shoe ponkansa kelki kicked’ sile tusaan ‘come in’ sile tusaan INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Why are language games important? • • • • If speakers can manipulate bits of language, those ‘bits’ must be ‘real’ bits’ real’ (so, we can prove that speakers ‘understand’ understand’ syllables, even if they can’t explain them) can’ The ‘bits’ that can move must be units bits’ (so, for example we can find out where syllable boundaries are in words that have consonant clusters) Why are language games important? • Because they’re fun. they’ • Extnay imetay e’llway eviewray orfay examtay eethray • (Next time we’ll review for exam three…) we’ three… • Andtay avehay ethay astlay ecturelay activitytay • (And have the last lecture activity!) • Be there, or be square. INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 14 INDV101 – Fall 2007 15 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2010 for the course INDV 101 taught by Professor Walker during the Fall '07 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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