dec3_taboos

dec3_taboos - INDV101 ‘Language’ INDV101 ‘Language’...

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Unformatted text preview: INDV101 ‘Language’ INDV101 ‘Language’ December 3, 2007 Taboos, swearing and language play Animals in the News INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Animals in the News INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 The Remaining Calendar • Weds, December 5, Review for Weds, Exam 3 Exam – Last day to do extra credit. – Last lecture, course and teacher evals! • December 7, 5pm – all scores are December posted in d2l. posted – Including extra credit! • December 10, Exam 3 (optional), December here 11-1. – Review session, December 10, 811am, SSCI 411 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Review • “Official Language” policies Official worldwide worldwide • History of language policy in the History US US • “Status Planning” vs. “Corpus Status Planning” in language policy Planning” • Relationships between English Relationships in the US and indigenous languages languages • Relationships between English Relationships in the US and immigrant languages. languages. INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Dog names! (Popular) • German Shepherd + Dalmatian? – Shepmatian or Dalherd • Springer Spaniel + Mastiff? – Springer Mastiff or Springstiff • Border Collie + Rottweiler – Rottwollie or Collieweiler • Chihuahua + Dachsund – Dachuahua or Huahuasund • Old English Sheepdog + Pointer – (Old) Shointer or Sheeper INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Dog names! (Original) • German Shepherd + Dalmatian? – Pherdatian (Abby McCallum) • Springer Spaniel + Mastiff? – Stiffer Maniel (Angelica PotoDesPortes) • Border Collie + Rottweiler – Borderweiler (Kristen Martin) • Chihuahua + Dachsund – Chihuahuachsund (Adam Ross) • Old English Sheepdog + Pointer – Old Shpointer (Nathan Garinger) INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Shifting gears… INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Taboos, Swearing, Wordplay • There are several reasons to believe There that swearing is linguistically important: that – Swearing and acquisition – Swearing and the brain – Swearing and the grammar – Swearing and the culture • Sociolinguistically, the study of Sociolinguistically, swearing and word taboos provides a window into culture… window INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Swearing and Acquisition • ‘Taboo words’ are Taboo acquired early in first language acquisition. language • Also, in second Also, language learning. language • Second language Second learners remember taboo words better than other kinds of words. other • Why? INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Swearing and the Brain • “Swearing is frequently one of the Swearing small set of speech functions (automatic speech) selectively preserved in the severely aphasic patient patient “Swear words and phrases are Swear produced with normal articulation and prosody, in stark contrast to the remaining speech and language disability” (Van Lancker and Cummings, (Van 1999:84) 1999:84) • • INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Swearing and the Brain • Other diseases and conditions that Other (sometimes) selectively affect swearing (sometimes) • Tourette’s syndrome • Certain traumatic brain injuries • Paraplegia • Epilepsy • Some dementias • Klazomania (compulsive shouting) • Sydenham’s chorea INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Swearing and the Grammar • Taboo words sometimes Taboo provide crucial evidence for linguistic structures, or themselves show unique grammatical constraints grammatical “f***ing infixation” – evidence f***ing for word-internal rhythmic structures in English structures What the f***, who the f***, What when the f***, where the f***, but, crucially NOT *Which the f*** INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 • • • Taboo and obscene language • All languages include words which cannot be All politely uttered within a particular speech community. community. • Some such words may be appropriate only Some within informal registers, or among certain people, or at certain times or places. people, • Others may be considered inappropriate to Others utter at any time. utter • These we’ll refer to as ‘word taboos’; taboo These words are sometimes considered ‘obscene’ words INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Word taboos • In many societies, people’s names In become taboo upon that person’s death death – – In Ute, to say a dead person’s In name will ‘wake him/her up’ name In Navajo, to say a dead person’s In name is to invite trouble from that person person • “We are dealing with a deepseated belief, fortified by seated continuous tradition for thousands of years: the belief that there is an essential relation between words and things, - between the name and the object that is called by that name.” (Kittredge 1902) name.” INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Word taboos • Want to hear a Want taboo word of English? English? • Ursa! • How ‘bout one in How Latin Latin • Wolf! • (latin has ‘lupus’) INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Ursa, Lupus • The proto-Indo European roots for ‘bear’ and The ‘wolf’ were likely *æ k¶) ª ) (which became h N¶ ª ƒ Ë ‘wolf’ (which ‘*ursa’ in Latin, but ‘bär’ in Germanic)W nd ha ‘*ursa’ and *æ¶ k)ª ) (which became ‘lupus’ in Latin, ‘wolf’ h N ªƒ ¶ Ë (which in Germanic) in • These words were subject to ‘hunter taboo’; These and replaced by euphemisms and • (for example, ‘bear’ > ‘bär’ probably meant är’ ‘brown one’; in Slavic words for bear derive from ‘honey eater’) from INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Word taboos • Common sources of word taboo, crosslinguistically – Powerful animals (wolf, bear) – Powerful beings & religion (gods, spirits) – Death • Less commonly, cross-linguistically – Less but often found in European languages but – Sexuality and bodily functions INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 American English Taboos? • • • • • Words for: Body parts Sexual activities Excretion Most religious taboos are less powerful Most than these. than INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 How to curse in Quebecois • Words for sexuality and Words bodily functions are not taboo. taboo. • But if you want to shock But someone, say this: someone, • “Oh, tabernacle!” or Oh, “Chalice!” “Chalice!” • (But say it in Quebecois) • Taboo words relate to the Taboo church (also, in Irish…) church INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Why do we care? • Word taboos tell us Word about the linguistic ideology of a community community • They give us They information about the cultural context in which they occur in INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 “7 Dirty Words you can’t say on TV” • • • • George Carlin, 1972 – George “Filthy Words” “Filthy Arrested on obscenity Arrested charges charges Act was broadcast Act uncensored on the radio in 1973 radio US Supreme Court US case “FCC vs Pacifica” 1978 (Stevens wrote for the majority) for INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 The Words • • • • • Piss Shit T**s F*** And three others that are And still strong enough I’m not going to mention them (two are compound words for sexual activities, one a female anatomical term). female INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 What’s ‘indecent language’? • "[T]he concept of `indecent' is "[T]he intimately connected with the exposure of children to language that exposure describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium, sexual or excretory activities and organs, at excretory at times of the day when there is a reasonable risk that children may be in the audience." (FCC vs Pacifica) in INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Taboo words through time • • • • Several of Carlin’s dirty words Several are now not (as) dirty (20 years) are ‘piss’ iis now regularly used as a s part of expressions such as ‘pissed off’ ‘pissed ‘shit’ iis now heard on primetime, s family hour television family ‘t**s’ iis a word also commonly s heard on primetime TV, and elsewhere (although Janet Jackson can tell you about whether the word’s referents are still deemed obscene). still INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Dirty Words Harm Kids? • This American Life: “propriety” (6:20-17:57) Then FCC Commissioner Powell Ira Glass Bono INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 ‘F­ing Brilliant!’ INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 FCC – ‘Golden Globe’ Decision INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Dr. Timothy Jay Dr. Dirty Words INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Kids & Taboo words? • By far, the winner By is… is… • F*** (age 5-12) • Sh** (age 7) • Suck, damn, Jesus Suck, (summer camp) (summer • Hell, bitch, bum, ass Hell, (day care) (day INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Why do we swear? INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 FCC vs. Pacifica • “Second, broadcasting is uniquely Second, accessible to children, even those too young to read. Although Cohen's written message might have been incomprehensible to a first grader, Pacifica's broadcast could have enlarged a child's vocabulary in an instant.” instant INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Jiminy Cricket! Dangnabbit! INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Violent behavior, bad words? INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Denotation, connotation • Connotation – ‘The signifying in addition; inclusion of something in the meaning of a word besides what it primarily denotes; implication.’ • Denotation – ‘That which a word denotes, as distinguished from its denotes as connotation; the aggregate of objects of connotation the which a word may be predicated; extension.’ extension.’ INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Expressive Function Son-of-a-gundiddily-un! INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 "And prively he caught hire by the queynte... And heeld hire by the haunchbones." (Canterbury tales) Chaucer, Shakespeare "the bawdy hand of the dial is now upon the prick of noon” (Romeo & Juliet) INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Golden Globes Decision Today • In June, 2007 the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals blocked the Golden Globes decision, ruling that "fleeting expletives" were not covered under obscenity statutes. statutes. • FCC: “Offensive words may be profane and/or “Offensive indecent depending on the context. In the Golden Globe Awards Order, the FCC stated that it would address the legality of broadcast language on a caseaddress by-case basis. Depending on the context presented, by-case use of the “F-Word” or other words as highly offensive as the “F-Word” may be both indecent and profane, if aired between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m.” profane, INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Swearing, wordplay • Swearing, insulting, teasing and joking are Swearing, often intertwined with each other often • Just as swearing is a universal feature of Just human language, so too is teasing, joking and word play and • Sometimes word play tells us something Sometimes important about grammar as well. important • For example… INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Igpay Atinlay • I’ll give you an I’ll example: example: • [tap] [aptej] [tap] • [bel] [elbej] [bel] • [læŋgwəd h Ë ] [æŋgwəd h Ë lej] [æŋgw • Now you do some! • [sænd] ? [sænd] • [bebi] ? [bebi] INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Igpay Atinlay • • • • • • • [spæn] ? [spæn] [straŋ] ? [straŋ] [brawn] ? [brawn] [blæk] ? [blæk] [kwin] ? [kwin] [kjut] ? [kjut] (how you treat consonant (how clusters gives us information about syllable structure in English) English) INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Language games targeting syllables (Bagemihl 1989) • Zande – tikpo kpoti ‘salt’ tikpo ‘salt’ – vuse sevu ‘belly’ vuse • Tagalog – – kapatid tidpaka kapatid paŋit ŋitpa ŋit ‘sibling’ ‘sibling’ ‘ugly’ ‘ugly’ ‘welcome’ (no gloss provided) • Chaga – kapfo pfoka kapfo – Ihenda ndahei Ihenda INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Language games targeting syllables (Bagemihl 1989) • Zande – tikpo kpoti ‘salt’ kpoti ‘salt’ – vuse sevu ‘belly’ se • Tagalog – – kapatid tidpaka tidpaka paŋit ŋitpa ŋitpa ‘sibling’ ‘sibling’ ‘ugly’ ‘ugly’ ‘welcome’ (no gloss provided) • Chaga – kapfo pfoka pfo – ihenda ndahei nda INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Language games targeting phonemes (Bagemihl 1989) • Javanese – – satus tasus satus duwit wudit duwit ‘one hundred’ ‘money’ ‘here’ ‘four’ ‘four’ • Tagalog – dito doti dito • Chasu – wane wena wane INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Language games targeting phonemes (Bagemihl 1989) • Javanese – – satus tasus us duwiit wudit t ‘one hundred’ ‘money’ ‘here’ ‘four’ ‘four’ • Tagalog – dito doti • Chasu – wane wena INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Language games targeting CV? (Bagemihl 1989) • Hanunoo – balaynun nulayban balaynun – rignuk nugrik rignuk – bi:ŋaw ŋa:biw bi:ŋaw ‘domesticated’ ‘tame’ ‘nick’ • Finnish – kenkänsä polki ponkansa kelki ‘his shoe kenkänsä kicked’ – tule sisään sile tusaan ‘come in’ tule ‘come INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Language games targeting CV? (Bagemihl 1989) • Hanunoo – balaynun nulayban nu – rignuk nugrik – bi:ŋaw ŋa:biw ‘domesticated’ ‘tame’ ‘nick’ • Finnish – kenkänsä pollki ponkansa kellki ‘his shoe nkänsä po ki ponkansa ke ki kicked’ – tulle siisään siille tusaan e s sään ‘come in’ s e tusaan ‘come INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Why are language games important? • • • • If speakers can manipulate bits of language, those If ‘bits’ must be ‘real’ ‘bits’ (so, we can prove that speakers ‘understand’ (so, syllables, even if they can’t explain them) syllables, The ‘bits’ that can move must be units (so, for example we can find out where syllable (so, boundaries are in words that have consonant clusters) clusters) INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 Why are language games important? • Because they’re fun. • Extnay imetay e’llway eviewray orfay Extnay examtay eethray examtay • (Next time we’ll review for exam three…) • Andtay avehay ethay astlay ecturelay Andtay activitytay activitytay • (And have the last lecture activity!) • Be there, or be square. INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 INDV101 – Fall 2007 ...
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