Fall 06 - All 3 Exams Front

Fall 06 - All 3 Exams Front - BIOL 1603 / FA06/ Exam I...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOL 1603 / FA06/ Exam I (Bgln‘mxfl E Dr. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of changes in A) uniformitarianism. B) the origin of new species. C) natural selection. D) the fossil record. E) evolution. 2) Which of the following events, as described here, is most in agreement with the idea of catastrophism? A) the development of the Galapagos Islands from underwater seamounts over millions of ears B) {he demise of the dinosaurs, and various other groups, by the impact of a large extraterrestrial body with Earth C) the gradual uplift of the Himalayas by the collision of the Australian crustal plate with the Eurasian crustal plate D) the deposition of sediments many kilometers thick on the floors of seas and oceans E) the formation of the Grand Canyon by the Colorado River over millions of years 3) What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin? A) Earth is millions of years old, and populations are unchanging. B) Earth is millions of years old, and populations rapidly change. C) Earth is millions of years old, and populations gradually change. D) Earth is 6,000 years old, and populations gradually change. E) Earth is 6,000 years old, and populations are unchanging. 4) During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement would you use to correct this student's misconception? A) Only favorable adaptations have survival value. B) Spontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits. S) Disuse of an organ may lead to its eventual disappearance. NOverproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival. RCharacteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes. 5) In the mid-19005, the Soviet agronomist Lysenko exposed winter wheat plants to ever-colder temperatures, collected their seeds, and then exposed the seedlings to ever-colder temperatures. He repeated his attempts over the course of decades in an attempt to improve the cold-tolerance of winter wheat. Lysenko's attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of A) Lamarck. B) Darwin. C) Wallace. D) Lyell. E) Hutton. 6) Darwin's mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of Earth‘s ancient age? Physicists of his time hemists of his time mGeneticists of his time D) Geologists of his time E) Natural theologians of his time 1) L0 DB. 15) Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection? 1. Differential reproduction occurs. 2. A new selective pressure arises. 3. Allele frequencies within the population change. 4. Poorly adapted individuals have decreased survivorship. A) 2, 4, 1,3 B) 4, 1, 2,3 C) 4,2, 3,1 D) 2,4,3,1 E)4,2,1,3 16) During drought years on the Galapagos, small, easily eaten seeds become rare leaving only large, hard-cased seeds that only birds with large beaks can eat. If a drought persists for several years, then what should one expect to result from natural selection? uPisLSmall birds anticipating the long drought and eating more to gain weight and, consequently, growing larger beaks. B) Small birds mutating their beak genes with the result that later-generation offspring have larger beaks. Wall birds gaining larger beaks by exercising their mouth parts. D) ore small-beaked birds dying than the larger-beaked birds. The offspring produced in subsequent generations have a higher percentage of birds with large beaks. E) Larger birds eating less so smaller birds can survive. 17) Which of the following statements is not an inference of natural selection? A) Unequal reproductive success among its members leads a population to adapt over time. B) Subsequent generations of a population should have greater proportions of individuals that possess favorable traits. C) Often only a fraction of offspring survive, because there is a struggle for limited resources. D) An individual organism undergoes evolution over the course of its lifetime. E) Individuals whose inherited characteristics best fit them to the environment should leave more offspring. hich of the following is the best example of humans undergoing evolution, understood as "descent with modification"? A) increased pigment production by the skin of a person who is exposed to increased UV radiation levels B) widening of the pupils of the eyes when one encounters dimly lit conditions BLreduction in number of hairs on the head of a balding person 'B-Mncrease in weight over an individual's lifetime ‘5). reduction in the amount and coarseness of body hair over millennia 19) Which statement best describes how the evolution of pesticide resistance might occur in a population of insects? A) All insects exposed to the insecticide begin to use a formerly silent gene to make a new enzyme that breaks down the insecticide molecules. N‘Insects observe the behavior of other insects that survive pesticide application, and adjust their own behaviors to copy those of the survivors. Individual members of the population slowly adapt to the presence of the chemical by striving to meet the new challenge. D) A number of genetically resistant pesticide survivors reproduce. The next generation of insects contains more genes from the survivors than it does from susceptible individuals. E) The pesticide loses its potency as it ages 15) Ar 16) 19)!) 25) Road construction has isolated a small portion of a beetle population from the main population. 25) i After a few generations, this new population exhibits dramatic genetic differences from the old one, most likely because A) allele frequencies among the stranded beetles differed by chance from those in the parent population's gene pool and subsequent genetic drift caused even more divergence from the original gene pool. B) members of a small population tend to migrate, removing alleles from the gene pool. C) mutations are more common in the new environment. D) gene flow increases in a new environment. E) the new environment is different from the old, favoring directional selection. 0 $ 26) Sparrows with average-sized wings survive severe storms better than those with longer or 26) shorter wings, illustrating A) the founder effect B) stabilizing selection. C) directional selection D) the bottleneck effect. E) disruptive selection. 27 Which of the following must occur during a period of geographic isolation in order for two 27) & closely-related species to remain genetically distinct following their geographic reunion in the same home range? A) prezygotic barriers B) reproductive isolation C) ecological isolation D) postzygotic barriers E) temporal isolation MATCHING. Write the word or phrase (or letter associated with that word or phrase) that best matches each statement or answers the questiou. Use the following options to answer the following questions. For each description of reproductive isolation, select the option that best describes it. Options may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. gamefic B. temporal C. behavioral D. habitat E. mechanical 28) two species of orchids with different floral anatomy 28) 29) two species of trout that breed in different seasons 29) J 5 30) two species of meadowlarks with different mating songs 30) C 31) two species of garter snakes live in the same region, but one lives in water and the other 31) D lives on land 32) two species of pine shed their pollen at different times 32) I ) 33) mating fruit flies recognize the appearance, odor, tapping motions, and sounds of 33) I 2 ‘ members of their own species, but not of other species 34) the scarlet oak is adapted to moist bottomland, whereas the black oak is adapted to dry 34) D upland soils 38) A defining characteristic of allopatric speciation is A) asexually reproducing populations. B) the appearance of new species in the midst of oid ones. C) large po ulations. D) geograp 'c isolation. E) artificial selection. I @A rapid method of speciation that has been important in the history of flowering plants is ' A) a mutation in the gene controlling the timing of flowering. B) mechanical isolation. S C) polyploidy. // I! D) behavioral isolation. If II E) genetic drift. 40) Plant species A has a diploid number of 8. A new species, B, arises as an autopolyploid from A. ' The diploid number of B would most likely be A) 64. B) 4. C) 16. D) 32. E) 8. 4i) Autopolyploidy is a speciation process that begins with an error during A) embryonic development. B) habitat selection. C) hybridization. D) copulation. E) meiosis. 42) Which of the following statements is correct about gram—negative bacteria? A) They often possess an outer membrane containing toxic lipopolysaccharides. B) On a cell-to-cell basis, they possess more DNA than do the cells of any taxonomically higher organism. C) Their chromosomes are composed of DNA tightly wrapped around large amounts of histone proteins. D) Their cell walls are primarily composed of chitin. E) They lack cell walls 43) Jams, jellies, preserves, honey, and other foodstuffs with a high sugar content hardly ever become contaminated by bacteria, even when the food containers are left open at room temperature. This is because bacteria that encounter such an environment A) are obligate anaerobes. ‘B-Lundergo death by lethal injection. C) are unable to metabolize the glucose or fructose, and thus starve to death. ~B‘Lundergo death by plasmolysis. E) are unable to swim through these thick and viscous materials. 44) In a hypothetical situation, the genes for sex (i.e., conjugation) pilus construction and for ' tetracycline resistance are located together on the same plasmid (circular DNA) within a particular bacterium. If this bacterium performs conjugation involving a copy of this plasmid, then the result should be A) the production of endospores among the bacterium's progeny. B) a new species of bacterium. C) the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance to other bacteria in that habitat. D) the formation of a bacterial nucleus E) the formation of mitochondria 45) Which of the following is a correct statement about the genomes of prokaryotes? A) Prokaryotic DNA is not contained within a nucleus but, rather, are found at the nucleoid region. BlProkaryotic DNA undergoes mitosis but not meiosis. K) Prokaryotic genomes are composed of linear DNA (that is, DNA existing in the form of a line with two ends). Prokaryotic DNA undergoes meiosis but not mitosis E) All prokaryotic cells have multiple chromosomes packaged with a relatively large amount of protein within a double membrane. 53) According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria 53) Z originate? A) from engulfed, originally freewliving prokaryotes B) from infoldings of the plasma membrane, coupled with mutations of genes for oxygen- using metabolism C) by tertiary endosymbiosis D) from the nuclear envelope folding outward and forming mitochondrial membranes E) when a protoeukaryote engaged in a Symbiotic relationship with a free~living nucleus 54) l ; 54) Which process allows nucleomorphs to be first reduced, and then lost altogether, without the loss of any genetic information from the host cell that ultimately surrounds the nucleomorph? A) conjugation B) binary fission C) horizontal gene transfer D) meiosis E) phagocytosis 55) Which organisms represent the common ancestor of all photosynthetic plastids found in 55) eukaryotes? A) autotrophic euglenids B) red algae C) diatoms D) cyanobacteria E) dinoflagellates 156) Magnetotaxis is 56) " A) a form of motility in the archaea B) energy loss due to gravitational forces C) directed m0vement in a magnetic field D) cell division in a magnetic field E) the non-linnean name for a group of iron-bearing bacteria D 57) Which of the following lists the linnean ranks in their proper order from highest to lowest? 57) A) Kingdom, Family, Phylum, Order, Class, Genus, Species B) Kingdom, Phylum, Family, Order, Class, Genus, Species C) Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Family, Genus, Order, Species D) Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species E) Kingdom, Class, Phylum, Order, Family, Genus, Species 58) An organism that requires organic carbon for its metabolism could be termed a . ' 58) A) halophile B) thermophile C) chemoheterotroph D) photoautotroph E) moneran 59) A thin layer of iridium, dated to ca. 65 MYA, was cited by Alvarez as evidence of 59) Z l A) a large, extraterrestrial impact B) an evolutionary transition between Ambulocetus and Basillosaums C) convergence between the "Sugar Glider” and the "Flying Squirrel.” D) human migration during the Pleistocene E) the onset of a global ice age / 60) D 60) Anatoxin is a powerful ? A) prokaryotic flagellum B) eukaryotic flagellum C) hepatotoxin D) endospore E) neurotoxin MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1. \ 67) Protistan flagellate that lives in the gut of termites \68) Proposed a theory of inheritance in which each body part was thought to transmit the units of inheritance to the gametes. \69) Proponent of the serial endosymbiosis hypothesis \7()) EndOSymbiotic‘cyanobacterium that functions as a chloroplast in Glaucocystis 71).?r0‘posed a particulate model for inheritance after studying pea plants. ' \ 72) The haryesting of chloroplasts by _ ‘animals \73) A spirochete that is the agent of the STD, syphilis ‘ . \ 74) An amoeba with chloroplasts \ 75). Change in the timing of developmental events \76) Disease-causing spirochete that is transmitted to humans through the bite of an invertebrate.(ticks) 77) Early proponent of the "inheritance of acquired characteristics” \_ 78) Cell from Anabaena that is capable of _ nitrogen fixation _ \ 79) Archaebacterial organisms that ‘ produce CH4 \ 80) Common enteric member of the human gut flora 11 QEscherichia calf ht) Chloramchnion ‘(KMendel fiHeterochrony " ‘1) Methanogens NMixotricha “L2 Heterocyst ) Borrelia §|Margulis BIOL 1603/FA 06/Exam 2 27‘ Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Questions 1-20 are worth 2 points each. Questions 21-70 are worth one point each. 1) In flowering plants, pollen is released from the A) stigma. B) anther. C) pollen tube. D) filament. E) carpel. 2) Which of the following plant tissues is incorrectly matched with its characteristics? epidermis_protective outer covering of plant body B) collenchyma_uniformly thick-walled supportive tissue C) parenchymafithin—walled, unspecialized cells Weristematic tissue_undifferentiated tissue capable of cell division E) sclerenchyma_heavily lignified secondary walls 3) The fiber cells of plants are a type of A) meristematic cell. B) phloem C) sclerenchyma. D) parenchyma. E) collenchyma. he vascular bundles in the shape of a ring in a stem cross section is called a/ an A) cortex. B) eustele. C) endodermis. D) pith. E) atactostele. 5) Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a stem originates from which cells? A) phloem B) apical meristem C) endodermis D) vascular cambium E) xylem 6) Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called A) sclereids. B) hairs. C) xylem cells. D) phloem cells. E) stomata. all mli 13) Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed? A) ovule B) fruit C) stamen D) style E) ovary 14) Which of the following flower parts develops into a fruit? A) ovule B) style C) stigma D) ovary E) filament 15) The protist that contributed to the Irish potato famine was A) a diatom. B) a red alga C) an oomycete. D) a green alga. E) a brown alga 16) Which algal group is mismatched with its description? hired algae_no flagellated stages in life cycle Bkbrown algae_include the largest seaweeds BLgreen algaegclosest relative of land plants D) diatoms_a major component of phytoplankton E) dinoflagellates_glassy, two-part shells 17) In life cycles with an alternation of generations, multicellular haploid forms alternate with A) multicellular diploid forms. B) unicelIular haploid forms. C) multicellular haploid forms. D) multicellular polyploid forms. E) unicellular diploid forms. 18) Which group(s) within the Alveolata include(s) members that are important in ocean food webs, cause(s) red tides that l<ill many fish, and may even be carnivorous? A) dinoflagellates B) apicomplexans C) green algae D) kelps E) cyanobacteria 19) A certain unicellular eukaryote has a siliceous (glasslike) shell and autotrophic nutrition. To which group does it belong? A) diatom B) green algae C) red algae D) brown algae E) dinoflagellate 20) The largest seaweeds belong to which group? A) cyanobacteria B) golden algae C) green algae D) brown algae E) red algae liflé (40) ii 28) Working from deep geologic strata toward shallow geologic strata, what is the sequence in which fossils of these groups should make their first appearance? 1. charophyceans (e.g., Chara) 2. single—celled green algae 3. liverworts 4. plants with a dominant sporophyte A) 3, 1, 2,4 B) 2,1,3,4 E) 2,4,1,3 C) 3,2, 4,1 D) 1, 3, 2,4 29) Charles and Francis Darwin concluded from their experiments on phototropism by grass seedlings that the part of the seedling that detects the direction of light is the A) root tip. B) cotyledon. C) base of the coleoptile. D) phytochrome. E) tip of the coleoptile. '30) Which of these conclusions is supported by the research of both Went and Charles and Frances Darwin on shoot responses to light? A) Agar contains a chemical substance that mimics a plant hormone. B) When shoots are exposed to light, a chemical substance migrates toward the light. C) Light stimulates the de new (from scratch) synthesis of a plant hormone that responds to light. D) Once shoot tips have been cut, normal growth cannot be induced. E) A chemical substance involved in shoot bending is produced in shoot tips. 31) Plant hormones can be characterized by all of the following except that they A) have a multiplicity of effects. B) may act by altering gene expression. C) function independently of other hormones. D) control plant growth and development. E) affect division, elorigation, and differentiation of cells. @Nhich of the following has not been established as an aspect of auxin‘s role in cell elongation? RAuxin stimulates proton pumps. Wuxin instigates a loosening of cell wall fibers. Auxin activity permits an increase in turgor pressure. D) Auxin increases the quantity of cytoplasm in the cell. Bifhrough auxin activity, vacuoles increase in size. 33) Which plant hormone(s) is (are) most closely associated with cell division? 55). testosterone B) phytochrome C) cytokinin Elabscisic acid ‘ELethylene 3 In nature, poinsettias bloom in early March. Research has shown that the flowering process is triggered three months before blooming occurs. In order to make poinsettias bloom in December, florists change the length of the light-dark cycle in September. Given the information and clues above, which of the following is a false statement about poinsettias? A) They require a longer dark period than is available in September. B) The dark period can be interrupted without affecting flowering. C) They require a light period shorter than some set maximum. D) They will flower even if there are brief periods of dark during the daytime. E) They are short-day plants. in (54) 3.. @B E 39) In which cell would you expect photorespiration? A) Cell II B) Celll C) Cell I at night D) Cell II at night E) neither Cell I nor Cell II 40) CAM plants keep stomata closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they A) use photosystems (i.e., the light reactions) at night. B) fix C02 into organic acids during the night. C) fix C02 into pyruvate in the cortical cells of the root. D) use carbonic anhydrase to fix oxygen E) fix C02 into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells. 41) In C4 photosynthesis, carbon fixation takes place in the malic or aspartic acid to Calvin cycle. A) stomatal; mesophyll B) mesophyll,‘ bundle—sheath C) bundle-sheath; epidermal D) epidermal; mesophyll E) stomatal; epidermal cells, and then is transferred as cells, where carbon dioxide is released for entry into the 42) In which of the following pairs are the two terms equivalent? A) embryo sac_female gametophyte B) endospenn_rnale gametophyte C) ovule__egg D) microspore_pollen grain E) seed_zygote In flowering plants, a mature male gametophyte contains A) two haploid gametes inside a diploid pollen grain. B) a generative cell and a tube cell. C) a haploid nucleus inside a diploid pollen grain. D) two haploid microspores. E) two sperm nuclei and one tube cell nucleus. 44) Within the female gametophyte, three mitotic divisions of the megaspore produce A) three pollen grains. B) two antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, two eggs, and two synergids. C) the triple fusion nucleus. D) a tube nucleus, a generative cell, and a sperm cell. E) three antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, one egg, and two synergids. L/ 6 (64) 51) Photosynthesis begins to decline when leaves wilt because A) CO2 accumulates in the leaves and inhibits photosynthesis. B) flaccid cells are incapable of photosynthesis. C) the chlorophyll of flaccid cells cannot absorb light. D) stomata close, preventing C02 entry into the leaf. E) there is insufficient water for photolysis during light reactions. 52) Which of the following is a correct statement about sugar m0vement in phloem? A) Movement can occur both upward and downward in the plant. BXOnly phloem cells with nuclei can perform sugar movement. Nugar is translocated from sinks to sources. D) Diffusion can account for the observed rates of transport. E) Sugar transport does not require energy. 53) In the pressure (bulk) flow hypothesis of translocation, what causes the pressure? A) the osmotic uptake of water by the sieve tubes of the sink B) root pressure C) the osmotic uptake of water by sieve tubes at the source D) the accumulation of minerals and water by the stele in the root E) hydrostatic pressure in xylem vessels 54) Which of the following is an ongoing trend in the evolution of land plants? A) reduction of the gametophyte phase of the life cycle Bkelimination of sperm cells or sperm nuclei .Skancreasing reliance on water to bring sperm and egg together D) ecrease in the size of the leaf E) replacement of roots by rhizoids l 55) Which of the following is not a characteristic of hyphate fungi (fungi featuring hyphae)? ; .A) Their body plan is a netlike mass of filaments called a mycelium. "*B) Their cell walls consist mainly of cellulose microfibrils. C) The nuclei of the mycelia are typically haploid. D) They acquire their nutrients by absorption. E) They may be saprobes, parasites, or mutualistic symbionts. 56) fungi, karyogamy (nuclear division) does not immediately follow plasmogamy (cell division), which A) means that sexual reproduction can occur in specialized structures. B) allows fungi to reproduce asexually most of the time. 'SLresults in more genetic variation during sexual reproduction. mis strong support for the claim that fungi are not truly eukaryotic. E) results in dikaryotic or heterokaryotic cells. 57) The ascomycetes get their name from which aspect of their life cycle? A) vegetative growth form B) sexual structures C) type of vegetative mycelium Dishape of the spore ‘B‘asexual spore production 5 / 7 (77) 67) A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells 67) with relatively thin cell walls. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. What type of cells are these? N xylem B) parenchyrna C) sclerenchyma g) collenchyma endoderrnis 68) Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots? 68) l :4 A) phloem B) epidermis C) cortex D) endoderrnis E) pericycle 69) Suppose George Washington completely removed the bark from around the base of a cherry tree 69) [l but was stopped by his father before cutting the tree down. The leaves retained their normal appearance for several weeks, but the tree eventually died. The tissue(s) that George left functional was (were) the " A) phloem. B) cortex. CE) cork. D). xylem. .E) companion and sieve—tube members. @ "Totipotency" is a term used to describe the ability of a cell to give rise to a complete new ,—_ _. 70) C I; organism. _In plants, this means that _ .1 - , ' ' ' ' w '. A) plant development is not under genetic control. . B) sexual reproduction is not necessary: in plants. ' C) cell differentiation depends largely on the control of gene expression. a t D) a cell's environment has no effect on its differentiation. E) the cells of shoots and the cells of roots have different-genes. \ 8) I4 (90) 5' I. 11 Biology 1603 — Third exam Print name [1 | rfl 3 Multiple choice. 2 points each. Put a circle around the letter denoting the correct answer (only one answer per question). 1. In the life cycle of Plasmodium, the parasite that causes malaria, fertilization occurs in a. The host’s liver b. The host’s red blood cells 23 I ( Q The mosquito’s digestive tract d. The mosquito’s salivary glands e. The host’s spleen _ 2. The ciliate Paramecium reproduces sexually by a. Binary fission 5 b. Nuclear fission (3/ Conjugation 25-] 2’ d. . Budding e. None of the above 3. The intestinal parasite Giardz'a is classified as being among the Diplomonadida 8 9 2 b. Parabasala c. Alveolata d. Amoebozoa e. Euglenozoa a 4. {animals 3. Produce haploid zygotes .«C Reproduce only sexually g All belong to the phylum Chordata Have life cycles dominated by a diploid stage e. ! Have only bilateral symmetry 7 5. During development the endoderm gives rise to ' a The kidneys C3 i a The skin © ‘ The liver as Skeletal muscle \ Bone % 6. Bilateral symmetry does not occur in . X Humans _ Chimpanzees C qo Flatworrns The larvae of echinoderms - I Q Ctenophores 593% 12. Gas exchange in adult frogs occurs via a. Lungs only @ Lungs and skin 6 c. Lungs and skin and gills (1. Skin only 6. Gills and lungs 13. In recent phylogenies birds are grouped with 4,3 @ Saurischian dinosaurs b. Ornithiscian dinosaurs c. Pterosaurs Crocodilians e. Bats g 4 {f 14. Birds have 6 q 2 a A urinary bladder and a cloaca 19‘ Two ovaries R No teeth, except in some waterfowl Large gonads throughout the year Forelimbs derived from the basic pentadactyl limb % 15. The hominid species Australopithecus afarensis is important to the evolutionary history of modern humans because of its a. Ability to climb trees b. Ability to make fire 0. Ability to make tools @ Ability to walk upright on two legs e. All of the above W 16. The shell of the amniotic egg protects the embryo from M @ Desication (Kb 9 Dessication ® Desiccation Dessiccation (a... Loss of carbon dioxide ? 17. If Jane Doe’s cardiac output is 6 liters per minute and her heart rate is 50 beats per minute, then her stroke volume must be @ 120 ml per beat 67; b. 100 ml per beat c. 80 ml per beat (1. 60 ml per beat e. 40 ml per beat g 23. Purkinje fibers at. Ramify throughout the atria (19 Are modified cardiac muscle cells 0. Cannot conduct action potentials (1. Begin in the SA node 63) Are a system of neurons (( 24. éompwfiglfigzirrésiaaizries tend to W 6 ,5 g 7 y 8 Have more valves Have more smooth muscle in their walls d» Lose their endothelial lining ,. 6. Have a much greater cross-sectional area 25. Precapillary sphincters constrict when the extracellular fluid around them“ H a. Is low in carbon dioxide G (13 Is high in oxygen 0. Is warmer than usual d. Has a pH higher than 7.0 C. Is stimulated by sympathetic fibers 26. Most lymph is returned to the regular circulation at the a. Pulmonary vein b. Heart c. Right subclavian vein , GD Left subclavian vein @ Lymph nodes 27. If all innervation to a myogenic heart is severed, one would expect the heart to IE 7% a Beat only when stimulated with electrodes (as. with an artificial pacemaker) g b. Beat more forcefully and rapidly {(9 Continue beating rhythmically (1 Stop beating altogether @ Continue beating but at an irregular pace fiié 34. If the pontine breathing control center is ablated (destroyed), but the medullary center remains intact, breathing a. Is unaffected b. Ceases completely q Continues but is arhythmic Increases in rate and depth e. Increases in rate only @35. Regarding pressure and volume changes during the cardiac cycle: ‘a; Left ventricular filling is completed before atrial systole ‘ W @ Left ventricular filling is not completed until after the beginning of ventricular systole ' Left ventricular volume is greatest at the end of ventricular systole __ _ __ 7 a __ Left ventricular pressure increases steadily during the whole of systole 6. Left ventricular pressure remains high during most of diastole \r. 36. Hemoglobin molecules Can bind a maximum of two oxygen molecules 5L- ‘- 15. Leave the tissues completely devoid of bound oxygen ‘7‘ Q Are composed of folded polysaccharides - l ' ‘61. Have 100 % of their oxygen binding sites occupied when leaving the lungs @ Bind oxygen loosely and reversibly (‘2 37. The partial pressure of oxygen in alveolar spaces is lower than in air because a. Of dead space mixing , 64 1 The tissues have already extracted almost all of the oxygen The lungs have a high metabolic rate (1. More space if being taken up by carbon dioxide e. The amount of nitrogen is increased Dissolved in plasma As carbonic acid 3 @ As bicarbonate ion 84 b. Bound to hemoglobin c d 6 Bound to chloride ion 49 52. Long Answer, 11 points. A) In the space below construct a graph with the following parameters: The abscissa (X axis) should be labeled VEDV (ventricular end-diastolic volume) and have a linear scale that goes from 0 to 400 ml. The ordinate should be labeled Stroke Volume and have a linear scale that goes from 0 to 200 ml. B) Once the graph is laid out, draw a curve on it that shows the relationship of stroke volume to VEDV in a resting individual. Label this curve with a l. C) Draw a second curve showing the same relationship but this time during sympathetic stimulation. Label this curve with a 2“ D) Finally, explain in detail what your graph shows about the regulation of stroke volume m how this regulation is achieved (the underlying mechanisms). ...
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Fall 06 - All 3 Exams Front - BIOL 1603 / FA06/ Exam I...

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