Lecture_16_Ploidy_2010-1

Lecture_16_Ploidy_2010-1 - Ploidy February 19th, 2010 Three...

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Ploidy February 19 th , 2010 Three specimens of Odontophrynus: O. americanus male, 4x =4 Artificial hybrid young, 3x=33 (b); O. cultripes female, 2x=22 (c)
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Announcements Problems Set 3 Due Today at 4:00 PM
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Review Pedigree analysis for humans – validate linkage properties via the Log Of oDds (LOD) score (cutoff = 3) LOD = log [p(specific linkage value)/p(indep. assortment)] LOD scores are additive Tetrads / Octads: Information on Linkage / Centromere position Parental Ditype (PD), Non-Parental Ditype (NPD), Tetratype (T) Crossing Over in Tetrads: Perkins Mapping Function
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Ploidy: Outline WHAT ARE POLYPLOIDS? HOW DO POLYPLOIDS ARISE? WHAT ARE ANEUPLOIDS AND HOW DO THEY ARISE? THE PUZZLE FOR TODAY: “Polyploidy is very common in plants but rarer in animals (for reasons that we will consider later).”
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Outline WHAT ARE POLYPLOIDS? Organisms with multiple sets of chromosomes
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Chromosome number nomenclature 1 chromosome set = haploid (like yeast) 2 chromosome sets = diploid (like humans, or anything else with a “mom” and a “dad”) more than 2 chromosome sets = polyploidy (triploid, tetraploid,…) # of different chromosomes in each set = monoploid number “x” ( Human x = 23 ) n = (eg. Haploid) number in gametes, 2n=(eg. Diploid) number in zygote diploids n = x; 2n = 2x tetraploids n = 2x; 2n = 4x hexaploids n = 3x; 2n = 6x and so on ….
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Monoploids Aberrant 1x individuals from a normally 2x (or greater) population (yeast is not a monoploid since it is NORMALLY haploid) Typically sterile due to lack of pairing between homologs during meiosis
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Lecture_16_Ploidy_2010-1 - Ploidy February 19th, 2010 Three...

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