GS-notes - Edexcel A Level - General Studies Unit.1 Notes...

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Edexcel “A” Level - General Studies Unit.1 – Notes of study 1. Culture What is Culture? Culture is defined as the shared patterns of behaviors and interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding that are learned through a process of socialization. These shared patterns identify the members of a culture group while also distinguishing those of another group. Some examples of cultural activities are: the use of symbols such as the Cross, use of musical instruments to mark an event, etc. . National culture National culture refers to the shared patterns of beliefs, values, behaviours and interactions typical to a nation or a country. Examples are: Deewali (an Indian national cultural celebration), recital of national anthem, celebration of the national day / independence day, etc. . Western culture Western culture or Western civilization is a term often used to most of the cultures of European origin and most of their descendants. It comprises the broad, geographically based heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs (such as religious beliefs) and specific artifacts and technologies as shared within the Western sphere of influence. Some examples are: The Symphony, Ballet, the architectural styles such as Romanesque, Gothic, Baroque, and Victorian styles. Popular culture or Low culture Popular culture refers to those cultural activities which are widely accepted, liked and followed. Popular culture as opposed to High culture does not require any special type of knowledge or competence to be understood and appreciated. Examples of popular cultural activities are, ‘comedy shows, reading fairy tales, reading or listening to or watching News in the Dailies, or the radio or the TV’ etc. High culture High culture refers to those cultural activities which require a level of knowledge and competence to be understood and appreciated. Examples are: ‘a lecture given by a
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neurosurgeon for medical students’, ‘a conference of scientists’, ‘classical music such as the Carnatic music of South India’. Youth culture Youth culture refers to those beliefs, values and activities unique to youth or youngsters. Examples are typical clothing styles (jeans, shorts, etc.), hair styles (punk, colored, etc.), slang language, etc. . 2. Morality What is Moral reasoning? Moral reasoning is a thinking process with the objective of determining whether an idea is right or wrong. Or, to know if a certain action is the right action to take, one must know what one wants to accomplish, where one is, and the environment between here and the accomplished state (for example, to impress my boss, I have to know what is likely to impress him/her, what I, myself, can do at the work-place or where he/she would observe, etc). Thus, to know if something (an idea, an action, a behavior) is "right" one has to know
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2010 for the course GENERAL ST AS taught by Professor Non during the Spring '08 term at University of London.

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GS-notes - Edexcel A Level - General Studies Unit.1 Notes...

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