studyguide - Subsets of anthropology: CLAP: cultural,...

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Subsets of anthropology: CLAP: cultural, linguistic, archaeology, physical Physical anthropology attempts to recreate how we were in the past physically. A large part of the oral cavity does not fossilize, so we can only simulate how Neanderthals spoke. We used to think that Neanderthals could only say the a, e, o vowels but then we found the hyoid bone Language and culture is a two-way street Edward Bennett Tylor spoke of language as a way of life: the whole of knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs and everything else acquired. Ralph Linton spoke about culture as something that is shared: sum total of knowledge, attitude and behaviors shared Culture is shared and culture is learned. Culture wish subcultures are called pluralistic. Ensures heritage will be perpetuated, but generation gaps work against this. Traits of culture: VPINK. Values (goals of life), physical (material), interaction, norms, knowledge of rules Lexicon reflects what is culturally important Language also influences culture. If a language does not have a word to describe something, speaker is forced to use what s/he has and explain something differently than s/he actually sees. Culture follows the way language classifies the world Sapir-Whorf hypothesis examines how language influences culture. Linguistic relativity states that people who speak different languages perceive the world differently. Linguistic determinism states that language determines world view. Glottogenesis: speculation about the origin of language. This became a serious topic of discussion in the 16 th century. Before that, divine theories of language origin dominated. All cases the god who created language was the god of light Von Herder argued for evolutionary understanding of glottogenesis Darwin argued against the idea that language was distinctly human, said that difference between animal and human communication was a difference of degree, not quality. Argued for interjection theory: language was at first only a series of involuntary noises in response to pain, pleasure, anger. Plato argued for an inherent connection between sound and meaning. Sound reflects
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studyguide - Subsets of anthropology: CLAP: cultural,...

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