Subsets of anthropology: CLAP: cultural, linguistic, archaeology, physical
Physical anthropology attempts to recreate how we were in the past physically. A large
part of the oral cavity does not fossilize, so we can only simulate how Neanderthals spoke.
We used to think that Neanderthals could only say the a, e, o vowels but then we found the
Language and culture is a two-way street
Edward Bennett Tylor spoke of language as a way of life: the whole of knowledge,
belief, art, morals, laws, customs and everything else acquired.
Ralph Linton spoke about culture as something that is shared: sum total of knowledge,
attitude and behaviors shared
Culture is shared and culture is learned. Culture wish subcultures are called pluralistic.
Ensures heritage will be perpetuated, but generation gaps work against this.
Traits of culture: VPINK. Values (goals of life), physical (material), interaction, norms,
knowledge of rules
Lexicon reflects what is culturally important
Language also influences culture. If a language does not have a word to describe
something, speaker is forced to use what s/he has and explain something differently than s/he
Culture follows the way language classifies the world
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis examines how language influences culture. Linguistic relativity
states that people who speak different languages perceive the world differently. Linguistic
determinism states that language determines world view.
Glottogenesis: speculation about the origin of language. This became a serious topic of
discussion in the 16
century. Before that, divine theories of language origin dominated. All
cases the god who created language was the god of light
Von Herder argued for evolutionary understanding of glottogenesis
Darwin argued against the idea that language was distinctly human, said that difference
between animal and human communication was a difference of degree, not quality. Argued
for interjection theory: language was at first only a series of involuntary noises in response to
pain, pleasure, anger.
Plato argued for an inherent connection between sound and meaning. Sound reflects