notes91 - Sunday 5:00 Milne Library The study of language...

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Sunday 5:00 Milne Library The study of language and culture is also called linguistic anthropology Anthropology: cultural, linguistic, archaeology, physical (CLAP) Culture: the way of life led by living people, holistic look at a way of life Archaeology: examining artifacts from past way of life, culture of extinct societies Physical: evolutionary history, genetic make-up of humanity, how our species has evolved into what it is today, study primates in order to figure out what life was like before humans, also want to know if they had speech, but a large part of the oral cavity does not fossilize, so we must simulate ability to articulate speech Neanderthals can only simulate a, e o, but then bone was discovered intact (bone on which vocal folds rest) hyoid bone Linguistic: focuses on study of intricate relationship betwn language and culture, two way street. Based on belief that language is a part of culture and culture is a part of language Culture: more than artistic endeavors: “culture is the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” – Edward Bennett Tylor. He’s defining culture as a way of life Ralph Linton: “culture is the sum total of knowledge, attitudes and habitual behavior shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society.” Traits of culture: o Sharing: gives a culture the sanction of its values and norms, beliefs, you follow its do’s and don’ts o Shared by some kind of collectivity but not all, because there are subcultures and varieties o When a society has subcultures, we call this a pluralistic society o Culture ensures that heritage will be perpetuated, generation gaps work against this. Enculturation: younger generation learns about culture o Generation gap: when younger generation turns back on previous culture o Variation is a source of vitality: no variation, no evolution Culture is learned: o Biological learning: trial and error, this ability comes with birth with all species o Culture features social learning, through interaction with others o Enculturation: process by which cultural knowledge is transmitted from generation to generation, g-gaps threaten continuity of enculturation Components of culture: material (physical products) behavioral (actions and interactions) cognitive (knowledge of rules) norms (shared ideas about behavior) values (goals of life) Language and culture impact each other: what is culturally important is reflected in lexicon. For example, cultures in tropical areas don’t have words for smog, etc, things that are very common to us. Eskimo languages have as many as seven words for snow because subsistence strategies depend on snow. What is culturally important is linguistically important. Linguistic influence on culture is harder to understand: how does language impact
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notes91 - Sunday 5:00 Milne Library The study of language...

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