Test 1-2 - I Sociology is a product of the Industrial...

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I. Sociology is a product of the Industrial Revolution. a. Social observers have been around forever, but it was not scientific. b. The term “Sociology” was coined by Auguste Compte in the 1800s. c. Adam Smith , Wealth of Nations 1776 i. He argued for a laissez faire economy. He said that the invisible hand of market forces will control the economy and produce more wealth more than the mercantile system. ii. Higher demand would increase the supply. iii. “High Division of Labor” 1. Everyone is specialized. The Industrial Revolution brought assembly line production where each worker has one task. 2. He showed that you could adjust your production schedules to increase your productivity or minimizing the cost. d. Hebert Spencer i. He was a biologist and doctor and was influenced by Darwin and Wallace and evolution. He tried to apply these same ideas to society. He talks about how society has evolved. ii. As society grew they evolved into more complex organisms. iii. For Spencer, society was complex organisms with different parts with each performing a specialized function. In and change in one part of society would affect how they functioned in society. e. He can be considered the founder of “Structural-Functionalism.” They look at how society is constructed and how they fit together. This was an organized theory by Talcott Parsons. i. It has been the dominant theory in sociology for the last 100 years. ii. Robert K. Merton elaborated on this theory. There are going to be things in society that are functional, but there will also be things in society that are dysfunctional. Sometimes things can be both at the same time. 1. Example: Automobiles provide great transportation, but they pollute and breakdown. 2. He also talked about intended functions that are stated right up front and that everybody recognizes that are called Manifest Functions . a. Example: Education system i. People need to be educated so that you can get a job and serve a purpose. 3. “Latent Functions” are functions that lay below the surface. a. Example: If you didn’t go to college, you would probably be working full time. In other societies, people aren’t required to go to school, so they work earlier. In the US, it keeps young people out of jobs more. 4. Early sociologists were trying to discover governing laws of human behavior. They thought that by applying
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scientific methods to the study of human behaviors. We could have laws of human behavior that parallel the laws of gravity. Therefore if something goes wrong in society we can fix it. He said that social sciences especially sociology are very young. We haven’t built up enough information about social theories. 5.
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2010 for the course SOCIOLOGY 2001 taught by Professor Oneal during the Fall '09 term at LSU.

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Test 1-2 - I Sociology is a product of the Industrial...

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