Linguistics_exam1-review_Spring2009 - Exam 1 Review Ling...

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Exam 1 Review Ling 110 Spring 2009 1 Particulars When & Where: Tuesday, during lecture, in the lecture room. The exam is scantron again, and we are going to provide scantrons. There will be 40 questions. 2 Properties of Human Language 2.1 Terms Recursive: Able to loop back, creating an infinitely long sequence. Sentence formation is recursive. Ex: John hopes that Mary believes that Bill claims that…. 2.2 Non-veridicality A sense or cognitive faculty is non-veridical when what you perceive and what is actually present in the stimulus differ slightly. Vision: optical illusions. The way you perceive the picture is different from how it really is. Syntactic ambiguity a. “Sherlock saw the man with binoculars.” has two meanings b. “I shot an elephant in my pajamas. What he was doing in my pajamas, I don’t know.” The first sentence has two meanings, but the second sentence forces the funny reading. Leaving bits out of sentences: a. Pierre danced and Trudy did too. How do you know what Trudy did? It’s not said out loud. b. I went into my office, and John did too. Whose office did John go into, anyway? McGurk: You perceive sounds differently depending on what visual input is available. 3 Universal Grammar (UG) Universal Grammar is the architecture that defines how human languages work: the things that are common to all languages (principles) and the systematic ways in which they differ (parameters).
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Principle: words are grouped together into constituents. Ex: A noun phrase: [The boy who stole the book that my mother gave me yesterday] Parameter: Some languages allow the verb at the end of a sentence, others want it in the middle . 3.1 Poverty of the Stimulus No one explicitly teaches children a language, yet somehow they learn it, and they learn it pretty quickly. Much faster than they learn to tie their shoes, for instance. The data children are exposed to is flawed. Adults make speech errors and there are non- linguistic noises that the child must filter out. Some phenomena cannot be learned from the data alone You might expect children or second language learners to go through a phase where they make questions like, “Is the boy who in the corner is laughing,” but they never make these sorts of mistakes.
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Linguistics_exam1-review_Spring2009 - Exam 1 Review Ling...

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