LING101_Lecture_Tarski�s World - Structure and Meaning

LING101_Lecture_Tarski�s World - Structure and Meaning

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Tarski’s World: Structure & Meaning In the main lectures, you have been learning that the expressions of every human language and of the Language of First order Logic are STRUCTURED objects. In this two-lab sequence, you will do some hand-on exercises whose objective is twofold: (1) On the one hand, they will help you better familiarize yourself with the meaning of the connectives of first order logic introduced and discussed in the lectures (i.e. ¬ , , and ). (2) On the other hand, they illustrate in a very concrete way the relationship between STRUCTURE and MEANING in a language. We will use a program called Tarski’s World © , which allows you to see the relation between the meaning of a sentence and its STRUCTURE, by seeing how the structure of a sentence has an effect on whether it is a good (TRUE) description of a given situation. Since the truth of a sentence depends on the situation and on its meaning, this ties up meaning and structure in a very systematic and predictable way. Summing up this two-step dependency: STRUCTURE => MEANING => Truth Getting Started Before turning to our exercises concerning meaning and structure, which constitute your only assignment for this two labs sequence, we start by familiarizing ourselves with the program in a step-wise fashion (in this part you do not need to submit anything, but we strongly recommend you try to do the exercises anyway, and ask your TA if you have any trouble, before begin your assignment ). 1
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Part (1): Atomic Sentences In the first step we introduce a few new first logic symbols and learn what they mean. Although their meaning is often straightforward, because it is based on the meaning of expressions in your native language, there are a few differences that you will easily learn by training yourself with the program.
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LING101_Lecture_Tarski�s World - Structure and Meaning

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