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Biology 1A Section 1 Study Questions 3

Biology 1A Section 1 Study Questions 3 - Bio 1A – Study...

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Unformatted text preview: Bio 1A – Study Questions, Metabolism and enzymes Please remember that these are questions to help you organize the material. For the exam, you are responsible for all of the topics covered in the lecture and in the assigned chapters/pages of the textbook. Please work through the problems in the textbook to test yourself as you study. 1. What are the first and second laws of thermodynamics? 2. How does the change in free energy associated with a chemical reaction tell us whether the reaction is spontaneous? Is a spontaneous reaction a fast reaction? 3. What is the difference between an anabolic and a catabolic pathway? 4. How do cells carry out chemical reactions at reasonable rates? 5. Draw a reaction profile for an exergonic and an endergonic chemical reaction. For each reaction, is the equilibrium constant greater than or less than 1? 6. What are three factors that enable enzymes to speed up the rate of chemical reactions? 7. What is a typical rate enhancement observed for an enzyme‐catalyzed reaction, relative to the uncatalyzed rate? (10‐fold, 100,000‐fold, 100,000,000‐fold?) 8. What is the difference between a substrate and a prosthetic group? An apo‐enzyme and a holo‐ enzyme? 9. Name three common enzyme cofactors, and a common chemical feature they share. 10. Compare the lock‐and‐key and induced‐fit models for enzyme activity. Which model more accurately reflects enzyme behavior, and why? 11. If an enzyme inhibitor has a similar structure to the enzyme’s substrate, what kind of inhibitor is it likely to be? 12. If an inhibitor binds to a different site on an enzyme from the substrate binding site, what kind of inhibitor is it? 13. What is allosteric regulation? 14. Which bond in ATP is hydrolyzed to provide energy to catalyze endergonic reactions in the cell? ...
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