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Unformatted text preview: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 bp.com/statisticalreview What’s inside? 1 6 Introduction 1 2 Group chief executive’s introduction 2008 in review 36 Nuclear energy 36 Consumption Oil 6 8 11 16 17 18 20 Reserves Production Consumption Prices Stocks Refining Trade movements 38 Hydroelectricity 38 Consumption 40 Primary energy 40 41 43 Consumption Consumption by fuel R/P ratios 22 Natural gas 22 24 27 30 31 Reserves Production Consumption Trade movements Prices 44 Appendices 44 44 45 Approximate conversion factors Definitions More information 32 Coal 32 32 34 35 Reserves Prices Production Consumption BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 About this Review Guide to navigation BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 uses the following icons and colour coding to help you navigate your way quickly and easily through the document. Icons and colours represent various energy types so you can see, at a glance, which section you are in. For 58 years, the BP Statistical Review of World Energy has provided high-quality, objective and globally consistent data on world energy markets. The Review is one of the most widely respected and authoritative publications in the field of energy economics, used for reference by the media, academia, world governments and energy companies. A new edition is published every June. Find out more online BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 is available online at www.bp.com/statisticalreview. The website contains all the tables and charts found in the latest printed edition, plus a number of extras, including: • Historical data from 1965 for many sections. • Additional data for natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear energy, electricity and renewables. • An energy charting tool, where you can view predetermined reports or chart specific data according to energy type, region and year. • An oil, natural gas and LNG conversion calculator. • PDF versions and PowerPoint slide packs of the charts, maps and graphs, plus an Excel workbook of the historical data. About BP BP is one of the world’s largest oil and gas companies, serving millions of customers in more than 90 countries across six continents. Our business segments are Exploration and Production, and Refining and Marketing. Through these business segments, we provide fuel for transportation, retail brands and energy for heat and light. Oil Natural gas Coal Nuclear energy Hydroelectricity Primary energy Approximate conversion factors and definitions See page 44. View or order this Review at bp.com/statisticalreview The data series for proved oil and gas reserves in BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance, under UK accounting rules contained in the Statement of Recommended Practice, ‘Accounting for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, Production and Decommissioning Activities’ (UK SORP) or as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent BP’s view of proved reserves by country. Rather, the data series has been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party data. BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 Group chief executive’s introduction Energy in 2008 followed the economic headlines Tony Hayward Group Chief Executive June 2009 Welcome to the 2009 edition of the BP Statistical Review of World Energy. 2008 was a year of truly unprecedented developments, for the world economy and in energy markets. Prices for all forms of traded energy rose steeply, some reaching record highs, and then fell dramatically. Producers and consumers alike are wondering where global energy markets are headed, and how to manage the myriad issues around energy, including price volatility, security and climate change. In challenging times such as these, clear and objective perspectives are needed, and this is what BP’s Statistical Review has offered for 58 years. I hope you will find this Review to be a useful source of information on today’s energy situation – and a source of insight in thinking about tomorrow’s. As ever, the world economy is the key driver of energy consumption. It is easy to forget that until the middle of 2008, the economy continued to grow. In retrospect, last year represented the end of one of the strongest periods of economic growth ever recorded. However, the economy had already started to slow, most likely not unrelated to the high price of energy, and the financial crisis in September then triggered a sharp recession – with critical implications for global energy consumption. Energy prices followed these economic headlines, making for a year of very different parts. Oil prices increased steadily early in the year, exceeding $140 per barrel in early July – a record even on an inflation-adjusted basis. But then prices collapsed, falling by more than 70% by the end of the year. Market prices for natural gas and coal followed similar trajectories. Over the whole of 2008, average prices for all forms of primary energy increased significantly, with annual oil prices rising for a seventh consecutive year, a first in the nearly 150-year history of the oil industry. Primary energy consumption growth slowed in 2008, as did growth for each of the fossil fuels. All the net growth in energy consumption came from the rapidly industrializing non-OECD economies, with China alone accounting for nearly three-quarters of global growth. For the first time, non-OECD energy consumption surpassed OECD consumption. For a sixth consecutive year, coal was the fastest-growing fuel – with obvious implications for global CO2 emissions. The use of renewable fuels again rose rapidly, often benefitting from government support. Although renewable energy continues to play only a small role in the world’s energy mix, the share is rising rapidly in some countries and there are the beginnings of a material impact. Data on renewable energy – ethanol production as well as wind, solar and geothermal power generation capacity – may be found at www.bp.com/statisticalreview. In 2008 the world was no longer supplyconstrained, as production growth exceeded that of consumption for all fossil fuels, particularly later in the year. Expanded OPEC production drove increases in world oil supply, even as consumption declined. The cost-effective development of unconventional gas, enabled by technological innovation, drove the largestever increase in US natural gas supply, and for coal, strong growth in China was once again a key driver. Seen in this context, fundamental market forces help to explain the downward pressure seen on energy prices later in the year. Our data confirms that the world has enough proved reserves of oil, natural gas and coal to meet the world’s needs for decades to come. The challenges the world faces in growing supplies to meet future demand are not below ground, they are above ground. They are human, not geological. I would like to thank all those around the world who have been involved in preparing this Review – in particular our government contacts in many countries who helped to compile the data. 1 BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 2008 in review Global energy consumption growth slowed in 2008, with slower economic growth and higher average prices breaking a string of five consecutive years of above-average growth. Production growth exceeded that of consumption for all fossil fuels. For the year as a whole, prices for all forms of traded energy rose substantially despite sharp declines late in the year. Oil prices reached inflation-adjusted record highs, rising for a seventh consecutive year. Internationally traded coal prices rose more steeply than other fuels. Natural gas prices in Europe and for Asia-Pacific liquefied natural gas (LNG) rose in line with – or more rapidly than – oil prices, while North American price increases were more moderate. Non-OECD primary energy consumption exceeded OECD consumption for the rst time. Shanghai, China China accounted for three-quarters of global energy consumption growth. Primary energy consumption +7.2% China –2.8% US Energy developments World primary energy consumption – including oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and hydro power – grew by 1.4% in 2008, the slowest growth since 2001. Non-OECD primary energy consumption exceeded OECD consumption for the first time. The AsiaPacific region accounted for 87% of the world’s energy consumption growth. For the third consecutive year, coal accounted for the majority of primary energy consumption growth. Chinese consumption growth slowed for the fifth consecutive year, yet China accounted for nearly three-quarters of global growth. Energy consumption among exporting regions remained robust, with above-average growth in the Middle East and Africa. Consumption in the US fell by 2.8%, the largest decline since 1982. 2 Oil Dated Brent averaged $97.26 per barrel in 2008, an increase of 34%. Other benchmark crudes registered similar gains. Prices began the year just below $100 and rose sharply through mid-year, peaking above $144 in early July. But with strong OPEC production growth and the world economy – and oil consumption – weakening, inventories increased and prices declined sharply thereafter, ending the year below $40. An easing of refinery bottlenecks led to a narrowing of crude quality differentials in the second half of the year. Global oil consumption declined by 0.6%, or by 420,000 barrels per day (b/d), the first decline since 1993 and the largest decline since 1982. Consumption in OECD countries fell by 3.2% (1.5 million b/d), a third consecutive year of decline – led by a drop of 6.4%, or nearly 1.3 million b/d, in the US. Outside the OECD, consumption growth slowed to 1.1 million b/d, with continued strong growth among oil exporting countries partly offset by slower growth among Asia-Pacific importers. Oil production outside OPEC fell by 1.4% or 610,000b/d, the largest decline since 1992. While oil consumption declined, global oil production increased by 0.4%, or 380,000b/d. Although OPEC began cutting production late in the year, average annual production rose by 2.7%, or 990,000b/d. Middle Eastern OPEC members accounted for all of the net increase, with Saudi Arabian production rising by nearly 400,000b/d and Iraqi output rising by 280,000b/d. Oil production outside OPEC fell by 1.4% or 610,000b/d, the largest decline since 1992. OECD production fell by 4%, or 750,000b/d, with declines in North America and Europe; Mexican production fell by 310,000b/d, the world’s largest decline. Russian production fell by 90,000b/d, the first decline since 1998. These declines were partly offset by continued growth in Brazilian output of 70,000b/d. Refining capacity additions in 2008 totalled some 830,000b/d, with most of the additions concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region, especially China where capacity grew by 2.9% (220,000b/d). However, global crude runs fell by 250,000b/d because of lower oil consumption. The biggest throughput changes were a fall of 3.4% (510,000b/d) in the US, partially offset by growth of 4.4% (290,000b/d) in China. The combination of increasing refining capacity and lower crude runs meant Thunder Horse field, Gulf of Mexico, US US oil consumption fell by 6.4% or nearly 1.3 million b/d. that global refinery utilization in 2008 fell for the third year running to 84.8%, the lowest level since 2003. Global oil trade fell by 1.7% or 930,000b/d, the first decline since 2002 and the largest since 1987, driven by declining consumption among importing countries (especially in the OECD) and rising domestic consumption among the world’s oil exporters. Global oil consumption –0.6% The first decline since 1993 3 BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 2008 in review Natural gas Global gas consumption grew by 2.5%, below the 10-year average. In North America, spot gas prices for the year remained well below oil prices and consumption grew by an above-average 1.3%. Elsewhere only the Middle East saw above-average growth, driven by strong domestic consumption among energy-exporting nations and a rapid expansion of intra-regional trade. In OECD Europe and the Asia-Pacific region, oil-indexed gas prices rose more rapidly and consumption growth was below average. Chinese consumption grew by 15.8%, and China accounted for the largest incremental growth in world gas consumption. In the US output rose by 7.5%, 10 times the 10-year average and the strongest volumetric growth on record. Global gas production grew by 3.8%, above the 10-year average of 3%. Strong growth was driven by the US, which for the second consecutive year accounted for the largest increment to global production. In the US output rose by 7.5%, 10 times the 10-year average and the strongest volumetric growth on record. The development of unconventional resources and strong drilling activity (which began to decline later in the year as prices weakened) drove the US increase. Qatar accounted for the second-largest increment to supply as pipeline shipments to the UAE continued to ramp up. EU production rose for the first time since 2004, as increases in the Netherlands and Denmark offset UK declines. Global natural gas trade rebounded in 2008, growing by 3.8%, driven by growth in pipeline shipments; LNG trade for the year fell slightly. Pipeline trade increased by 5.5%; the ramp-up of Qatari exports accounted for 36% of global growth, and shipments also increased from Russia and several European countries, more than offsetting declining Canadian shipments to the US. Meanwhile, breaking a recent pattern of strong growth, global LNG shipments were limited by constrained supply. LNG plant, North West Shelf, Australia Global natural gas trade rebounded in 2008, growing by 3.8%; LNG trade for the year fell slightly. Natural gas share of world energy consumption Natural gas accounts for 24.1% of world energy use, the highest share on record. 24.1% 4 Other fuels Global coal consumption slowed in 2008, rising by a below-average 3.1%, yet coal remained the fastest-growing fuel in the world for a sixth consecutive year. In China (the world’s largest consumer, with a 43% share), consumption grew by 6.8%, below the 10-year average but still sufficient to account for 85% of global growth. In liberalized energy markets, coal prices in 2008 increased more rapidly than other fossil fuels; consumption growth outside China was a weak 0.6%. Growth was below the 10-year average for every region but South and Central America and Africa. Nuclear output dropped by 0.7%, a second consecutive global decline. Japanese output fell by 10% due to the lingering impact of a 2007 earthquake. Hydroelectric generation grew by 2.8%, with global growth above the 10-year average for the fourth time in the past five years. Chinese hydroelectric output grew by 20.3%, double the 10-year average and sufficient to account for all the global increase. Elsewhere hydroelectric output was weaker than average, falling by 0.4%. Renewable energy continued to grow strongly. Global wind and solar generation capacity increased by 29.9% and 69%, respectively – both figures above the 10-year average. Driven by a favourable policy environment, US wind capacity rose by 49.5%, surpassing Germany as the world’s capacity leader. Ethanol production rose by one-third driven by continued strong growth in the US and Brazil. Coal was again the world’s fastest growing fuel +3.1% World consumption growth Acknowledgements We would like to express our gratitude to the many contacts worldwide who provide the basic publicly-available data for this publication. Coal In liberalized energy markets, coal prices in 2008 increased more rapidly than other fossil fuels. 5 Oil Proved reserves At end 1988 Thousand million barrels At end 1998 Thousand million barrels At end 2007 Thousand million barrels Thousand million tonnes At end 2008 Thousand million barrels Share of total R/P ratio US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Colombia Ecuador Peru Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Azerbaijan Denmark Italy Kazakhstan Norway Romania Russian Federation Turkmenistan United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Iraq Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Yemen Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Angola Chad Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) Egypt Equatorial Guinea Gabon Libya Nigeria Sudan Tunisia Other Africa Total Africa Australia Brunei China India Indonesia Malaysia Thailand Vietnam Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD OPEC Non-OPEC‡ Former Soviet Union Canadian oil sands• Proved reserves and oil sands *More than 100 years. 35.1 11.9 53.0 100.0 2.3 2.8 2.1 1.5 0.9 0.6 58.5 0.6 69.2 n/a 0.5 0.8 n/a 7.3 1.2 n/a n/a 4.3 n/a 63.2 77.3 92.9 100.0 94.5 4.1 4.5 255.0 1.8 98.1 2.0 0.1 653.0 9.2 2.0 – 0.8 4.3 – 0.9 22.8 16.0 0.3 1.8 1.0 59.0 3.4 1.2 17.3 4.5 9.0 3.4 0.1 0.1 1.0 39.9 998.4 8.3 118.3 764.0 173.5 60.9 n/a n/a 28.6 15.1 21.6 65.3 2.8 7.4 2.5 4.1 0.9 0.7 76.1 1.1 95.6 n/a 0.9 0.8 n/a 11.7 1.2 n/a n/a 5.1 n/a 2.1 104.9 93.7 112.5 96.5 5.4 12.5 261.5 2.3 97.8 1.9 0.2 684.3 11.3 4.0 – 1.7 3.8 0.6 2.6 29.5 22.5 0.3 0.3 0.7 77.2 4.1 1.0 17.4 5.4 5.1 4.7 0.4 1.9 1.3 41.3 1068.5 8.9 89.2 827.2 157.6 83.8 n/a n/a 30.5 28.6 12.2 71.3 2.6 12.6 1.5 4.0 1.1 0.9 99.4 1.4 123.5 7.0 1.1 0.9 39.8 8.2 0.5 80.4 0.6 3.4 0.6 2.1 144.6 138.2 115.0 101.5 5.6 27.4 264.2 2.5 97.8 2.7 0.1 755.0 12.2 13.5 0.9 1.9 4.1 1.7 3.2 43.7 36.2 6.7 0.6 0.6 125.3 4.2 1.1 16.1 5.5 4.0 5.5 0.5 3.4 1.1 41.3 1261.0 6.7 90.3 957.1 174.7 129.2 150.7 1411.7 3.7 4.4 1.6 9.7 0.4 1.7 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.1 14.3 0.2 17.6 1.0 0.1 0.1 5.3 0.9 0.1 10.8 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.3 19.2 18.9 15.5 14.0 0.8 2.9 36.3 0.3 13.0 0.3 † 102.0 1.5 1.8 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.4 5.7 4.9 0.9 0.1 0.1 16.6 0.5 0.1 2.1 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.6 0.1 5.6 170.8 0.8 12.0 129.8 23.6 17.4 24.5 195.3 30.5 28.6 11.9 70.9 2.6 12.6 1.4 3.8 1.1 0.8 99.4 1.4 123.2 7.0 0.8 0.8 39.8 7.5 0.5 79.0 0.6 3.4 0.6 2.1 142.2 137.6 115.0 101.5 5.6 27.3 264.1 2.5 97.8 2.7 0.1 754.1 12.2 13.5 0.9 1.9 4.3 1.7 3.2 43.7 36.2 6.7 0.6 0.6 125.6 4.2 1.1 15.5 5.8 3.7 5.5 0.5 4.7 1.1 42.0 1258.0 6.3 88.9 955.8 174.4 127.8 150.7 1408.7 2.4% 2.3% 0.9% 5.6% 0.2% 1.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 7.9% 0.1% 9.8% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 3.2% 0.6% ◆ 6.3% ◆ 0.3% ◆ 0.2% 11.3% 10.9% 9.1% 8.1% 0.4% 2.2% 21.0% 0.2% 7.8% 0.2% ◆ 59.9% 1.0% 1.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 3.5% 2.9% 0.5% ◆ ◆ 10.0% 0.3% 0.1% 1.2% 0.5% 0.3% 0.4% ◆ 0.4% 0.1% 3.3% 100.0% 0.5% 7.1% 76.0% 13.9% 10.2% 12.4 24.1 10.3 14.8 10.5 18.2 6.0 20.3 25.5 15.2 * 27.7 50.3 20.9 7.7 21.1 70.0 8.3 13.3 21.8 8.0 6.0 14.6 13.4 22.1 86.9 * 99.6 20.9 54.1 66.5 17.2 89.7 23.9 10.6 78.6 16.7 19.7 19.4 21.3 16.4 12.9 37.0 64.6 45.6 38.1 18.5 12.0 33.4 20.4 16.9 11.1 20.7 10.2 19.8 3.9 40.8 12.8 14.5 42.0 7.7 13.2 71.1 14.8 27.2 †Less than 0.05. ◆Less than 0.05%. ‡Excludes Former Soviet Union. •‘Remaining established reserves’, less reserves ’under active development’. Notes: Proved reserves of oil – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that rate. Source of data – T he estimates in this table have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources, third-party data from the OPEC Secretariat, World Oil, Oil & Gas Journal and an independent estimate of Russian reserves based on information in the public domain. Canadian proved reserves include an official estimate of 22.0 billion barrels for oil sands ‘under active development’. Reserves include gas condensate and natural gas liquids (NGLs) as well as crude oil. Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand million barrels figures. 6 Proved reserves at end 2008 Thousand million barrels 42.0 70.9 Asia Pacific North America 123.2 S. & Cent. America 125.6 Africa 142.2 Europe & Eurasia 754.1 Middle East Distribution of proved reserves in 1988, 1998 and 2008 Percentage Middle East Europe & Eurasia Africa S. & Cent. America North America Asia Pacific 4.0 10.0 65.4 6.1 3.9 64.0 5.6 3.3 59.9 8.9 6.9 1988 Total 998.4 thousand million barrels 1998 Total 1068.5 thousand million barrels 9.8 2008 Total 1258.0 thousand million barrels 5.9 7.2 10.0 7.7 9.8 11.3 7 Production* Thousand barrels daily 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Colombia Ecuador Peru Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Azerbaijan Denmark Italy Kazakhstan Norway Romania Russian Federation Turkmenistan United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Iraq Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Yemen Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Angola Cameroon Chad Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) Egypt Equatorial Guinea Gabon Libya Nigeria Sudan Tunisia Other Africa Total Africa Australia Brunei China India Indonesia Malaysia Thailand Vietnam Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD OPEC Non-OPEC‡ Former Soviet Union 8011 2672 3499 14182 890 1003 775 385 116 134 3480 125 6908 231 238 117 537 3138 137 6169 129 2807 191 506 14199 3855 2121 2232 905 701 9502 576 2643 380 49 22964 1461 731 105 – 264 857 83 337 1480 2167 12 85 63 7644 644 157 3212 737 1520 779 130 245 217 7641 73538 3553 21500 32277 33870 7391 7731 2604 3343 13678 847 1133 838 383 107 141 3126 124 6699 279 299 104 631 3139 133 6178 143 2909 191 474 14480 3603 2610 2085 911 723 8853 579 2511 405 48 22328 1515 745 95 – 266 827 100 340 1425 2066 63 84 56 7583 625 182 3213 736 1408 737 140 296 218 7556 72325 3684 21103 31054 33719 7552 7733 2721 3450 13904 819 1268 711 409 100 138 3239 130 6813 282 363 95 744 3346 131 6536 144 2667 177 465 14950 3818 2614 2206 959 757 9491 548 2626 450 48 23516 1578 746 88 – 254 781 91 327 1475 2155 174 78 56 7804 809 193 3252 726 1456 735 176 328 200 7874 74861 3493 21521 32569 34278 8014 7669 2677 3560 13906 830 1337 627 416 98 135 3142 137 6722 301 348 86 836 3418 130 7056 162 2476 171 465 15450 3794 2523 2148 961 754 9209 581 2534 455 47 23006 1562 742 81 – 234 758 177 301 1427 2274 217 71 53 7897 733 203 3306 727 1389 719 191 350 195 7813 74794 3285 21303 31914 34220 8660 7626 2858 3585 14069 818 1499 601 401 98 155 2895 152 6619 311 371 115 1018 3333 127 7698 182 2463 171 501 16289 3543 2116 1995 900 764 8928 548 2324 457 48 21623 1680 905 72 – 231 751 204 295 1375 2103 241 74 63 7994 730 210 3346 753 1289 757 204 354 193 7836 74431 3339 21430 30318 34580 9533 7400 3004 3789 14193 806 1555 564 427 92 164 2554 153 6314 313 368 116 1111 3264 123 8544 202 2257 166 509 16973 4183 1344 2329 824 879 10164 527 2611 448 48 23357 1852 862 67 24 215 749 242 240 1485 2263 265 68 71 8402 624 214 3401 756 1183 776 236 364 195 7750 76990 3128 21165 32136 34355 10499 7228 3085 3824 14137 754 1542 551 535 94 152 2907 144 6680 315 390 113 1297 3189 119 9287 193 2028 152 496 17579 4248 2030 2475 785 992 10638 495 2656 420 48 24788 1946 976 89 168 216 721 345 235 1624 2502 301 71 75 9268 582 210 3481 773 1129 793 223 427 186 7804 80256 2902 20766 34658 34191 11407 6895 3041 3760 13696 725 1716 554 541 111 171 2937 143 6899 452 377 127 1356 2969 114 9552 192 1809 126 468 17541 4233 1833 2618 782 1028 11114 450 2753 416 34 25262 2015 1246 82 173 246 696 373 234 1751 2580 305 73 72 9846 580 206 3627 738 1087 744 265 398 201 7845 81089 2659 19861 35736 33513 11839 6841 3208 3683 13732 716 1809 559 545 116 174 2808 141 6866 654 342 120 1426 2779 105 9769 186 1636 125 457 17598 4282 1999 2690 747 1110 10853 435 2971 380 32 25499 2003 1421 87 153 262 697 358 235 1834 2474 331 70 66 9992 554 221 3684 762 1017 717 286 367 203 7810 81497 2422 19458 36007 33171 12318 6847 3320 3471 13638 699 1833 561 520 114 154 2613 143 6636 869 311 122 1484 2556 99 9978 198 1638 114 451 17819 4322 2144 2636 701 1197 10449 415 2925 345 35 25168 2016 1720 82 144 222 710 368 230 1848 2356 468 97 59 10320 567 194 3743 770 969 743 309 337 229 7862 81443 2388 19148 35714 32930 12799 6736 3238 3157 13131 682 1899 618 514 120 149 2566 138 6685 914 287 108 1554 2455 99 9886 205 1544 111 427 17591 4325 2423 2784 728 1378 10846 398 2980 305 33 26200 1993 1875 84 127 249 722 361 235 1846 2170 480 89 54 10285 556 175 3795 766 1004 754 325 317 237 7928 81820 2239 18400 36705 32295 12821 -1.8% -2.0% -9.1% -3.8% -2.6% 3.6% 10.3% -1.2% 4.0% -5.0% -1.9% -2.7% 0.6% 4.2% -7.7% -10.9% 5.1% -4.1% -0.4% -0.8% 3.8% -6.3% -2.7% -5.3% -1.3% -0.2% 13.0% 5.3% 3.7% 13.2% 4.0% -4.1% 2.0% -11.6% -5.7% 4.0% -1.3% 9.1% 2.3% -11.5% 12.3% 1.3% -2.1% 2.2% -0.1% -8.0% 2.6% -8.9% -8.5% -0.4% -1.5% -10.1% 1.4% -0.5% 3.2% 1.8% 5.5% -6.0% 3.1% 0.9% 0.4% -6.6% -4.0% 2.7% -2.0% 0.2% 7.8% 4.0% 4.0% 15.8% 0.9% 2.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.1% 0.2% 3.4% 0.2% 8.5% 1.1% 0.4% 0.1% 1.8% 2.9% 0.1% 12.4% 0.3% 1.8% 0.1% 0.5% 21.7% 5.3% 3.0% 3.5% 0.9% 1.5% 13.1% 0.5% 3.6% 0.4% ◆ 31.9% 2.2% 2.3% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.9% 0.5% 0.3% 2.2% 2.7% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 12.4% 0.6% 0.2% 4.8% 0.9% 1.2% 0.9% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 9.7% 100.0% 2.7% 22.0% 44.8% 39.3% 16.0% *Includes crude oil, shale oil, oil sands and NGLs (the liquid content of natural gas where this is recovered separately). Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass and coal derivatives. ‡Excludes Former Soviet Union. ◆Less than 0.05%. Notes: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes per annum figures. Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. 8 Production* Million tonnes 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Colombia Ecuador Peru Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Azerbaijan Denmark Italy Kazakhstan Norway Romania Russian Federation Turkmenistan United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Iraq Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Yemen Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Angola Cameroon Chad Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) Egypt Equatorial Guinea Gabon Libya Nigeria Sudan Tunisia Other Africa Total Africa Australia Brunei China India Indonesia Malaysia Thailand Vietnam Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD OPEC Non-OPEC‡ Former Soviet Union ‡Excludes Former Soviet Union. than 0.05%. Note: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. 368.1 125.1 173.5 666.7 44.0 49.8 38.5 19.6 5.7 6.7 179.6 6.2 350.0 11.4 11.6 5.6 25.9 149.6 6.6 304.3 6.4 132.6 8.2 24.2 686.5 190.8 104.2 110.0 44.7 33.6 455.7 28.6 123.5 18.0 2.3 1111.3 61.8 36.0 5.3 – 13.6 43.0 4.1 16.8 69.6 106.0 0.6 4.0 3.0 363.9 27.4 7.6 160.2 34.7 74.2 35.7 5.0 12.1 10.1 367.1 3545.4 168.5 1011.5 1564.4 1618.5 362.5 352.6 121.0 165.2 638.8 41.8 56.3 41.6 19.5 5.2 6.9 160.9 6.2 338.4 13.9 14.6 5.0 30.1 149.7 6.4 304.8 7.1 137.4 8.1 22.7 699.6 178.1 128.3 102.6 45.0 34.3 423.6 28.8 117.4 19.2 2.2 1079.4 63.9 36.7 4.8 – 13.7 41.4 5.0 17.0 67.0 100.8 3.1 4.0 2.7 360.0 26.7 8.9 160.2 34.6 68.6 33.9 5.4 14.6 10.2 363.1 3479.3 174.8 988.9 1501.5 1607.8 370.0 352.6 126.9 171.2 650.8 40.4 63.2 35.3 20.9 4.9 6.8 167.3 6.6 345.3 14.1 17.7 4.6 35.3 160.2 6.3 323.3 7.2 126.2 7.5 22.4 724.7 189.4 128.8 109.1 47.6 36.1 456.3 27.3 123.1 21.3 2.2 1141.2 66.8 36.9 4.5 – 13.1 38.8 4.5 16.4 69.5 105.4 8.6 3.7 2.7 370.9 35.3 9.4 162.6 34.2 71.5 33.7 7.0 16.2 9.4 379.2 3612.1 166.3 1011.1 1581.0 1637.7 393.4 349.2 126.1 176.6 651.8 41.5 66.3 31.0 21.2 4.8 6.5 161.6 6.9 339.9 15.0 17.0 4.1 40.1 162.0 6.2 348.1 8.0 116.7 7.2 22.2 746.6 186.5 123.9 105.8 47.5 35.7 440.6 28.9 118.2 21.5 2.2 1110.8 65.8 36.6 4.1 – 12.1 37.3 8.8 15.0 67.1 110.8 10.7 3.4 2.5 374.1 31.8 9.9 164.8 34.1 68.0 32.9 7.5 17.1 9.1 375.2 3598.4 155.6 999.5 1541.6 1632.2 424.6 346.8 135.0 178.4 660.2 40.9 74.4 29.7 20.4 4.8 7.5 148.8 7.8 334.2 15.4 18.1 5.5 48.2 157.3 6.1 379.6 9.0 115.9 7.2 23.6 786.0 172.7 104.0 98.2 44.5 35.2 425.3 27.2 108.4 21.5 2.2 1039.4 70.9 44.6 3.6 – 11.9 37.0 10.1 14.7 64.6 102.3 11.9 3.5 3.0 378.1 31.5 10.2 166.9 35.2 63.0 34.5 8.2 17.3 9.0 375.7 3573.6 158.2 1005.3 1458.4 1649.0 466.2 338.4 142.6 188.8 669.8 40.2 77.0 27.9 21.7 4.5 7.9 131.4 7.8 318.3 15.5 17.9 5.6 52.4 153.0 5.9 421.4 10.0 106.1 7.1 24.0 818.9 203.7 66.1 114.8 40.7 40.8 485.1 26.2 122.2 21.1 2.2 1123.0 79.0 42.5 3.4 1.2 11.1 36.8 12.0 12.0 69.8 110.3 13.1 3.2 3.5 397.8 26.6 10.5 169.6 35.4 57.7 35.6 9.6 17.7 9.1 371.8 3699.6 148.2 995.6 1545.1 1640.9 513.6 329.2 147.6 190.7 667.4 37.8 76.5 27.3 27.3 4.4 7.3 150.0 7.3 337.9 15.6 19.1 5.5 60.6 149.9 5.7 458.8 9.6 95.4 6.6 23.4 850.1 207.9 100.0 122.3 38.9 46.0 506.0 24.7 124.7 19.9 2.2 1192.7 83.6 48.2 4.5 8.8 11.2 35.4 17.1 11.8 76.6 121.9 14.9 3.4 3.6 440.9 24.8 10.3 174.1 36.3 55.2 36.5 9.1 20.8 8.7 375.8 3864.8 137.7 977.9 1669.7 1636.6 558.5 313.3 144.9 187.1 645.3 36.2 84.6 27.3 27.6 5.0 8.3 151.0 7.2 347.1 22.4 18.4 6.1 62.6 138.2 5.4 470.0 9.5 84.7 5.4 21.9 844.8 206.2 90.0 129.3 38.6 47.3 526.8 22.4 129.0 19.6 1.6 1210.8 86.4 61.2 4.2 9.1 12.7 33.9 18.5 11.7 82.1 125.4 15.0 3.4 3.5 467.2 24.5 10.1 180.8 34.6 53.0 33.9 10.8 19.4 9.3 376.4 3891.6 125.7 931.8 1715.4 1599.0 577.1 310.2 153.4 183.1 646.7 35.8 89.2 27.5 27.7 5.1 8.3 144.2 7.1 345.0 32.5 16.7 5.8 66.1 128.7 5.0 480.5 9.2 76.6 5.4 21.6 848.0 208.0 98.1 132.7 36.9 50.9 514.3 21.6 139.0 17.9 1.4 1221.0 86.2 69.7 4.4 8.0 13.5 33.7 17.7 11.7 85.6 120.0 16.3 3.3 3.2 473.3 23.4 10.8 183.7 35.8 49.9 32.5 11.8 17.8 9.3 375.0 3908.8 114.6 912.0 1726.3 1581.7 600.8 309.8 159.5 172.7 642.0 34.9 90.4 27.6 26.5 5.1 7.2 133.9 7.2 332.7 42.8 15.2 5.9 68.4 118.8 4.7 491.3 9.8 76.8 4.9 21.4 860.0 209.7 105.3 129.9 34.6 53.6 494.2 20.6 136.4 16.3 1.6 1202.2 86.5 84.3 4.2 7.5 11.5 34.1 18.2 11.5 86.0 114.2 23.1 4.6 2.9 488.5 24.1 9.5 186.7 36.2 47.4 33.6 12.7 16.4 10.5 377.0 3902.3 113.1 898.0 1707.8 1570.3 624.2 305.1 156.7 157.4 619.2 34.1 93.9 30.5 26.2 5.3 6.9 131.6 7.0 335.6 44.7 14.0 5.2 72.0 114.2 4.7 488.5 10.2 72.2 4.8 20.3 851.0 209.8 119.3 137.3 36.0 60.8 515.3 19.8 139.5 14.4 1.5 1253.7 85.6 92.2 4.3 6.7 12.9 34.6 17.9 11.8 86.2 105.3 23.7 4.2 2.7 488.1 23.8 8.5 189.7 36.1 49.1 34.3 13.4 15.4 10.9 381.2 3928.8 105.9 864.1 1758.3 1543.6 627.0 -1.8% -2.0% -9.1% -3.8% -2.6% 3.6% 10.3% -1.2% 4.0% -5.0% -1.9% -2.7% 0.6% 4.2% -7.7% -10.9% 5.1% -4.1% -0.4% -0.8% 3.8% -6.3% -2.7% -5.3% -1.3% -0.2% 13.0% 5.3% 3.7% 13.2% 4.0% -4.1% 2.0% -11.6% -5.7% 4.0% -1.3% 9.1% 2.3% -11.5% 12.3% 1.3% -2.1% 2.2% -0.1% -8.0% 2.6% -8.9% -8.5% -0.4% -1.5% -10.1% 1.4% -0.5% 3.2% 1.8% 5.5% -6.0% 3.1% 0.9% 0.4% -6.6% -4.0% 2.7% -2.0% 0.2% 7.8% 4.0% 4.0% 15.8% 0.9% 2.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.1% 0.2% 3.4% 0.2% 8.5% 1.1% 0.4% 0.1% 1.8% 2.9% 0.1% 12.4% 0.3% 1.8% 0.1% 0.5% 21.7% 5.3% 3.0% 3.5% 0.9% 1.5% 13.1% 0.5% 3.6% 0.4% ◆ 31.9% 2.2% 2.3% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.9% 0.5% 0.3% 2.2% 2.7% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 12.4% 0.6% 0.2% 4.8% 0.9% 1.2% 0.9% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 9.7% 100.0% 2.7% 22.0% 44.8% 39.3% 16.0% *Includes crude oil, shale oil, oil sands and NGLs (the liquid content of natural gas where this is recovered separately). Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass and coal derivatives. ◆Less 9 Production by region Million barrels daily Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North America 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 World oil production increased by 380,000b/d in 2008. OPEC production increased by 990,000b/d despite production cuts instituted late in the year. Saudi Arabia saw the largest production increase, with output rising by 400,000b/d. Russian production fell by 90,000b/d, the first decline since 1998. OECD production fell by 750,000b/d, with Mexico registering the world’s largest decline (310,000b/d). Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios Years 50 2008 by region 90 World 40 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia Pacific 75 60 30 45 20 30 10 15 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 0 0 Global proved oil reserves in 2008 fell by 3 billion barrels to 1,258 billion barrels, with an R/P ratio of 42 years. Declines in Russia, Norway, China and other countries offset increases in Vietnam, India and Egypt. The 2007 figure has been revised higher by 23.1 billion barrels, with the largest upward revisions in Venezuela and Angola. 10 Consumption* Thousand barrels daily 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium & Luxembourg Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Republic of Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt South Africa Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh China China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs ◆Less 18917 1913 1844 22674 467 2034 247 266 145 155 475 1152 4942 255 116 175 656 100 174 223 221 2016 2915 375 157 18 152 1974 176 76 854 215 424 322 242 2554 80 1381 338 279 640 75 302 1741 146 462 19831 1194 180 34 1262 283 1304 4258 194 559 450 1161 2364 825 76 4228 185 1963 914 5504 404 127 350 392 651 2030 786 691 432 19559 73628 14849 46569 3741 23319 19519 1926 1842 23286 445 2114 249 238 131 159 474 1166 4976 250 111 154 670 93 174 222 224 2044 2824 384 151 18 172 1980 147 63 880 216 431 330 195 2625 73 1423 337 271 638 80 272 1721 143 428 19745 1221 202 33 1302 271 1338 4367 187 573 461 1216 2438 843 68 4477 194 2134 980 5598 435 129 363 375 619 2178 964 698 447 20501 75313 14813 47467 3700 24146 19701 1937 1910 23548 431 2056 236 232 129 155 496 1173 4908 244 123 143 702 84 169 215 224 2007 2763 407 145 19 170 1956 158 49 897 201 427 324 203 2583 73 1452 318 263 677 79 255 1697 138 404 19568 1301 202 36 1426 255 1382 4602 192 564 475 1200 2432 837 66 4772 202 2254 1064 5557 435 131 373 348 654 2229 1003 669 479 21073 76132 14692 47651 3623 24859 19649 2023 1899 23571 405 2082 230 245 132 148 545 1223 5009 265 81 149 669 87 179 205 222 2023 2804 412 142 18 185 1946 186 56 942 213 415 327 217 2566 68 1508 318 281 645 83 273 1697 135 428 19747 1314 206 40 1471 292 1431 4754 200 548 486 1218 2452 845 80 4872 244 2284 1086 5422 442 134 366 347 716 2235 991 656 506 21225 76758 14861 47692 3627 25440 19761 2067 1837 23665 364 2063 228 222 131 147 594 1228 4977 271 74 145 691 98 174 200 226 1967 2714 416 140 19 182 1943 193 53 952 208 420 338 226 2606 76 1526 317 267 656 86 278 1693 130 454 19738 1413 222 54 1505 320 1433 4948 222 534 499 1228 2484 846 80 5288 268 2374 1138 5347 482 139 357 331 699 2282 999 705 528 21863 77675 14797 47675 3667 26333 20033 2132 1885 24050 372 1985 228 222 137 140 479 1267 4830 293 86 148 748 115 185 193 239 1965 2664 405 138 18 178 1927 183 51 962 219 435 317 199 2622 71 1559 332 259 662 95 286 1717 148 496 19915 1498 238 48 1616 333 1404 5138 231 550 512 1244 2537 851 83 5803 270 2420 1141 5440 473 149 321 331 668 2300 1069 746 537 22601 79071 14867 48276 3745 27050 20732 2248 1918 24898 388 1999 240 223 141 153 523 1271 4938 285 92 153 785 105 203 189 224 1978 2634 438 142 20 185 1873 187 55 1003 210 460 322 230 2619 68 1593 319 258 667 95 293 1764 134 512 20092 1558 266 53 1670 355 1467 5370 240 567 523 1269 2600 856 83 6772 316 2573 1225 5269 485 150 325 338 748 2283 1084 824 568 23899 81796 15032 49073 3760 28963 20802 2247 1974 25023 414 2048 254 230 168 152 576 1288 5129 294 108 146 815 109 211 195 233 1960 2605 436 163 21 196 1819 207 58 1070 212 479 331 223 2601 81 1619 315 262 656 100 294 1802 112 549 20285 1620 295 62 1756 376 1508 5617 251 629 526 1322 2728 886 94 6984 287 2569 1231 5343 469 154 312 315 794 2308 1090 852 596 24283 83065 15205 49490 3772 29804 20687 2246 1970 24904 432 2102 264 240 182 147 607 1323 5297 294 99 165 839 116 208 197 225 1956 2624 454 169 20 195 1813 227 59 1043 217 516 300 219 2709 82 1602 322 269 635 118 318 1785 105 562 20463 1693 267 75 1841 402 1539 5817 260 610 537 1290 2696 918 93 7382 305 2580 1173 5213 459 156 356 284 853 2317 1097 834 601 24620 83797 15211 49274 3948 30575 20680 2323 2027 25030 487 2274 346 234 196 154 665 1324 5681 278 92 157 832 117 206 196 226 1921 2393 445 169 21 198 1759 244 59 962 222 535 302 223 2706 86 1617 308 243 656 121 325 1714 111 585 20031 1693 269 90 2054 425 1554 6084 288 650 549 1288 2776 925 94 7742 324 2748 1201 5039 481 156 388 300 916 2389 1123 823 629 25277 84878 14746 48830 3973 32075 19419 2295 2039 23753 508 2397 358 234 204 172 719 1308 5901 278 71 159 836 120 210 189 225 1930 2505 438 169 19 190 1691 229 64 982 210 545 286 227 2797 89 1574 302 258 690 123 326 1704 113 610 20158 1730 300 104 2224 467 1599 6423 311 693 558 1319 2881 936 95 7999 294 2882 1217 4845 475 158 389 288 958 2291 1074 797 641 25339 84455 14765 47303 4045 33108 -6.4% -1.0% 0.5% -5.4% 4.1% 5.3% 3.8% 0.3% 4.0% 10.8% 8.1% -1.3% 3.7% -0.1% -25.9% 0.9% 0.4% 2.1% 1.4% -4.0% -1.2% 0.7% 4.9% -1.5% -0.2% -9.1% -4.4% -3.9% -6.4% 9.4% 0.8% -4.4% 2.6% -5.1% 2.2% 3.1% 3.2% -2.5% -1.5% 6.4% 5.8% 1.7% 0.5% -1.0% 1.5% 4.3% 0.6% 2.1% 11.7% 16.5% 8.1% 10.6% 2.7% 5.5% 8.3% 6.4% 1.7% 2.4% 3.8% 1.5% 1.9% 3.3% -9.4% 4.8% 1.5% -3.5% -1.4% 1.2% 0.2% -4.0% 5.0% -4.9% -4.8% -4.1% 1.8% 0.2% -0.6% 0.1% -3.2% 1.5% 3.1% 22.5% 2.6% 2.3% 27.4% 0.6% 2.7% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.8% 1.6% 6.9% 0.3% 0.1% 0.2% 1.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 2.3% 3.0% 0.5% 0.2% ◆ 0.2% 2.1% 0.3% 0.1% 1.2% 0.2% 0.6% 0.3% 0.3% 3.3% 0.1% 2.0% 0.4% 0.3% 0.8% 0.1% 0.4% 2.0% 0.1% 0.7% 24.3% 2.1% 0.4% 0.1% 2.7% 0.6% 2.0% 7.8% 0.4% 0.8% 0.7% 1.6% 3.4% 1.1% 0.1% 9.6% 0.4% 3.4% 1.5% 5.6% 0.6% 0.2% 0.5% 0.3% 1.3% 2.6% 1.3% 0.9% 0.8% 30.1% 100.0% 17.9% 55.5% 4.8% 39.7% *Inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of fuel ethanol and biodiesel is also included. than 0.05%. Notes: Annual changes and shares are calculated using million tonnes per annum figures. Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. Differences between these world consumption figures and world production statistics on page 8 are accounted for by stock changes, consumption of non-petroleum additives and substitute fuels, and unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of oil supply and demand data. 11 Consumption* Million tonnes 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium & Luxembourg Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Republic of Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt South Africa Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh China China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs ◆Less 863.8 86.7 82.8 1033.3 22.1 90.0 11.4 12.0 6.6 7.4 21.6 56.2 227.3 12.3 5.9 8.6 31.6 4.8 8.3 10.7 10.5 95.0 136.6 18.3 7.4 0.9 7.4 94.7 8.5 3.8 39.4 10.0 19.9 15.5 12.0 123.7 3.8 66.4 16.2 13.0 29.6 3.4 14.3 80.7 7.1 22.2 942.2 57.5 9.1 1.4 61.4 14.4 63.3 207.1 8.2 27.3 21.3 55.0 111.8 37.0 3.7 197.0 8.9 92.5 43.5 253.6 18.8 5.9 17.6 19.1 33.3 93.9 39.1 33.0 20.5 917.4 3439.2 703.5 2151.7 181.1 1106.4 888.9 87.2 82.4 1058.4 21.0 92.5 11.5 10.6 6.0 7.5 21.3 56.8 227.3 12.1 5.7 7.6 32.4 4.5 8.2 10.6 10.7 96.4 132.4 18.7 7.1 0.9 8.3 94.4 7.0 3.1 40.6 10.1 19.9 15.9 9.5 126.2 3.4 68.4 16.1 12.6 29.5 3.6 12.7 79.4 6.9 20.8 935.5 58.8 10.3 1.4 63.4 13.7 64.8 212.4 8.1 27.8 21.8 57.7 115.4 38.0 3.3 209.6 9.3 100.3 46.8 257.3 20.1 6.0 18.2 18.0 31.6 100.7 47.2 33.4 21.2 960.9 3510.1 700.4 2188.5 177.8 1143.8 897.6 88.1 85.7 1071.4 20.3 91.6 10.8 10.5 5.8 7.4 22.5 57.0 225.9 11.8 6.3 7.0 33.9 3.9 7.9 10.4 10.7 94.9 129.8 19.9 6.8 0.9 8.2 93.5 7.4 2.4 41.7 9.4 20.0 15.5 10.0 123.5 3.4 70.0 15.2 12.2 31.1 3.6 12.0 78.6 6.7 19.5 928.1 62.5 10.4 1.5 68.1 12.8 67.1 222.3 8.5 27.2 22.5 56.9 115.1 37.7 3.2 223.6 9.7 106.1 50.7 255.5 20.1 6.1 18.8 16.6 33.5 103.2 49.1 31.7 22.8 988.4 3551.2 696.7 2199.7 173.2 1178.4 896.1 90.5 85.0 1071.6 19.1 92.9 10.5 11.1 5.9 7.0 24.8 59.6 230.9 12.8 4.0 7.3 32.2 4.0 8.4 9.8 10.5 95.5 131.6 20.1 6.7 0.9 9.0 92.8 8.9 2.7 43.7 9.7 19.2 15.8 10.6 122.3 3.2 72.7 15.2 13.1 29.9 3.7 12.7 78.4 6.5 20.7 934.5 62.6 10.5 1.7 69.3 14.6 69.3 228.1 8.8 26.1 23.0 57.6 115.4 38.1 3.9 227.9 11.8 107.0 51.6 247.5 20.3 6.2 18.3 16.5 36.4 103.1 47.4 30.6 24.0 990.6 3571.1 703.3 2197.6 172.6 1200.9 897.4 92.2 81.5 1071.1 17.1 91.6 10.4 10.0 5.9 6.9 27.0 59.8 228.7 13.0 3.7 7.1 33.5 4.5 8.1 9.6 10.9 92.9 127.4 20.3 6.4 0.9 8.8 92.9 9.3 2.5 43.8 9.4 19.4 16.2 10.6 123.5 3.5 73.8 15.2 12.4 30.6 3.8 13.1 78.0 6.3 21.9 933.5 67.1 11.4 2.4 70.6 15.9 69.4 236.7 9.7 25.2 23.6 58.0 116.7 38.0 3.9 247.4 12.9 111.3 54.2 243.6 22.1 6.4 17.9 15.5 35.5 104.7 47.6 33.1 25.0 1018.9 3605.5 699.8 2190.8 174.1 1240.6 912.3 95.9 83.7 1091.8 17.6 87.8 10.5 10.0 6.2 6.5 22.0 61.5 222.1 14.1 4.3 7.2 36.4 5.2 8.7 9.2 11.4 93.1 125.1 19.7 6.3 0.9 8.5 92.1 8.8 2.4 44.1 9.9 19.9 15.2 9.4 123.4 3.3 75.5 15.9 12.1 31.0 4.2 13.5 79.0 7.2 23.8 940.9 71.0 12.2 2.1 75.5 16.3 67.9 245.0 10.1 25.9 24.2 58.5 118.8 38.3 4.0 271.7 13.0 113.1 54.0 248.9 21.7 6.9 15.8 15.5 33.9 105.6 50.9 35.1 25.3 1053.7 3672.3 703.2 2223.0 176.7 1272.6 948.8 100.6 85.2 1134.6 18.4 88.4 11.1 10.1 6.3 7.2 24.2 61.8 227.5 13.8 4.6 7.4 38.4 4.7 9.5 9.1 10.6 94.0 124.0 21.4 6.5 1.0 8.9 89.7 9.0 2.6 46.2 9.6 21.1 15.4 10.9 123.3 3.2 77.6 15.3 12.0 31.0 4.2 13.9 81.7 6.5 24.5 951.6 73.7 13.7 2.3 79.5 17.4 70.7 257.2 10.6 26.8 24.8 59.8 122.0 38.8 4.0 318.9 15.4 120.2 58.1 241.1 22.4 6.9 16.0 15.9 38.1 104.9 51.3 39.1 26.7 1117.9 3810.8 713.2 2266.4 177.7 1366.8 951.4 100.3 87.7 1139.4 19.7 90.1 11.7 10.3 7.5 7.0 25.9 62.4 234.8 14.2 5.3 7.1 39.9 4.9 9.9 9.2 11.0 93.1 122.4 21.2 7.5 1.0 9.4 86.7 10.0 2.8 49.6 9.7 21.9 16.0 10.5 121.9 3.8 78.8 15.1 12.2 30.2 4.4 13.9 83.0 5.5 26.2 958.3 77.3 15.2 2.7 83.0 18.3 72.3 268.7 11.0 29.8 24.8 62.3 128.0 39.8 4.6 327.8 13.9 119.6 58.2 244.1 21.5 7.1 15.3 14.8 40.9 105.4 51.3 40.4 27.9 1132.6 3861.8 720.1 2281.6 177.5 1402.7 943.8 99.6 86.8 1130.2 20.6 92.8 12.3 10.8 8.2 6.8 27.4 64.1 243.0 14.2 4.9 8.0 41.1 5.2 9.8 9.3 10.6 93.0 123.6 22.2 7.8 1.0 9.3 86.7 11.0 2.8 49.0 10.0 23.3 14.4 10.3 127.1 4.0 78.1 15.5 12.6 29.5 5.3 15.0 82.3 5.1 26.9 968.5 80.8 13.6 3.3 87.4 19.5 73.7 278.3 11.5 28.7 25.3 60.9 126.3 41.4 4.5 346.1 14.9 120.4 55.2 237.5 21.0 7.2 17.6 13.3 44.0 105.5 51.7 39.3 28.1 1147.7 3894.0 721.8 2268.9 185.9 1439.2 942.3 102.8 89.4 1134.5 23.2 99.8 16.1 10.7 8.9 7.1 30.0 64.2 260.0 13.4 4.5 7.6 41.0 5.3 9.7 9.3 10.6 91.3 112.5 21.7 7.7 1.0 9.4 84.0 11.6 2.8 46.0 10.2 24.2 14.4 10.3 126.2 4.1 78.8 14.7 11.3 30.5 5.4 15.3 79.2 5.4 27.9 947.6 81.3 13.6 4.0 96.1 20.7 74.4 290.1 12.9 30.6 25.8 60.7 129.9 41.7 4.5 362.8 16.0 128.5 56.4 229.3 22.0 7.2 19.2 14.0 47.4 108.3 52.5 38.2 29.4 1177.4 3939.4 700.2 2246.1 186.2 1507.1 884.5 102.0 90.0 1076.6 24.2 105.3 16.8 10.7 9.3 7.9 32.5 63.6 270.3 13.4 3.3 7.7 41.3 5.4 9.9 8.9 10.5 92.2 118.3 21.4 7.7 0.9 9.0 80.9 10.9 3.1 46.5 9.8 24.9 13.7 10.6 130.4 4.3 77.1 14.5 12.1 32.3 5.5 15.5 78.7 5.5 29.2 955.5 83.3 15.3 4.6 104.2 22.9 76.6 306.9 14.0 32.6 26.3 62.3 135.2 42.5 4.6 375.7 14.5 135.0 57.4 221.8 21.8 7.3 19.3 13.4 49.9 103.3 50.1 36.7 30.0 1183.4 3927.9 702.6 2179.8 189.5 1558.6 -6.4% -1.0% 0.5% -5.4% 4.1% 5.3% 3.8% 0.3% 4.0% 10.8% 8.1% -1.3% 3.7% -0.1% -25.9% 0.9% 0.4% 2.1% 1.4% -4.0% -1.2% 0.7% 4.9% -1.5% -0.2% -9.1% -4.4% -3.9% -6.4% 9.4% 0.8% -4.4% 2.6% -5.1% 2.2% 3.1% 3.2% -2.5% -1.5% 6.4% 5.8% 1.7% 0.5% -1.0% 1.5% 4.3% 0.6% 2.1% 11.7% 16.5% 8.1% 10.6% 2.7% 5.5% 8.3% 6.4% 1.7% 2.4% 3.8% 1.5% 1.9% 3.3% -9.4% 4.8% 1.5% -3.5% -1.4% 1.2% 0.2% -4.0% 5.0% -4.9% -4.8% -4.1% 1.8% 0.2% -0.6% 0.1% -3.2% 1.5% 3.1% 22.5% 2.6% 2.3% 27.4% 0.6% 2.7% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.8% 1.6% 6.9% 0.3% 0.1% 0.2% 1.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 2.3% 3.0% 0.5% 0.2% ◆ 0.2% 2.1% 0.3% 0.1% 1.2% 0.2% 0.6% 0.3% 0.3% 3.3% 0.1% 2.0% 0.4% 0.3% 0.8% 0.1% 0.4% 2.0% 0.1% 0.7% 24.3% 2.1% 0.4% 0.1% 2.7% 0.6% 2.0% 7.8% 0.4% 0.8% 0.7% 1.6% 3.4% 1.1% 0.1% 9.6% 0.4% 3.4% 1.5% 5.6% 0.6% 0.2% 0.5% 0.3% 1.3% 2.6% 1.3% 0.9% 0.8% 30.1% 100.0% 17.9% 55.5% 4.8% 39.7% *Inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of fuel ethanol and biodiesel is also included. than 0.05%. Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. Differences between these world consumption figures and world production statistics on page 9 are accounted for by stock changes, consumption of non-petroleum additives and substitute fuels, and unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of oil supply and demand data. 12 Consumption by region Million barrels daily Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North America 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 World oil consumption fell by 420,000b/d, the largest decline since 1982. OECD consumption fell by 1.5 million b/d, driven by a decline of nearly 1.3 million b/d in the US. China again recorded the world’s largest incremental growth, rising by 260,000b/d. Consumption growth was above the 10-year average in the exporting regions of the Middle East, South and Central America, Africa and the Former Soviet Union. Consumption per capita 2008 Tonnes 0-0.75 0.75-1.5 1.5-2.25 2.25-3.0 > 3.0 13 Regional consumption by product group Thousand barrels daily 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total North America Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total North America of which: US Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total US S. & Cent. America Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total S. & Cent. America Europe Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total Europe Former Soviet Union Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total Former Soviet Union Middle East Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total Middle East Africa Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total Africa Asia Pacific Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total Asia Pacific of which: China Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total China of which: Japan Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total Japan World Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total World European Union Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total European Union OECD Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total OECD Other EMEs‡ Light distillates Middle distillates Fuel oil Others Total Other EMEs 9849 6450 1506 4869 22674 8579 5545 869 3924 18917 1553 1641 866 882 4942 4315 6630 2195 2950 16090 893 1026 1046 775 3741 849 1471 1240 698 4258 563 926 498 378 2364 5201 7234 3657 3467 19559 1280 1241 741 967 4228 1611 1949 858 1086 5504 23224 25378 11007 14020 73628 4006 6103 2060 2681 14849 16728 15749 4809 9284 46569 5603 8603 5152 3961 23319 9998 6628 1415 5245 23286 8716 5700 814 4290 19519 1668 1625 761 922 4976 4314 6690 2093 2948 16045 858 1022 937 882 3700 859 1502 1295 712 4367 570 971 501 396 2438 5486 7678 3713 3624 20501 1249 1467 771 990 4477 1702 1978 840 1078 5598 23754 26115 10714 14730 75313 4025 6170 1936 2683 14813 17027 16107 4650 9684 47467 5869 8986 5128 4163 24146 10106 6811 1518 5112 23548 8813 5852 893 4143 19701 1540 1617 801 950 4908 4194 6734 1967 3050 15946 797 1008 765 1053 3623 910 1567 1292 832 4602 574 999 459 401 2432 5636 7813 3675 3949 21073 1270 1590 775 1136 4772 1735 1958 785 1079 5557 23758 26550 10477 15348 76132 3923 6234 1785 2750 14692 17069 16276 4622 9683 47651 5892 9265 5090 4611 24859 10211 6812 1411 5137 23571 8890 5884 794 4082 19649 1517 1657 827 1009 5009 4086 6991 1986 3056 16120 851 1021 693 1062 3627 949 1618 1319 868 4754 585 1013 436 419 2452 5771 7968 3481 4005 21225 1256 1669 780 1167 4872 1720 1957 678 1067 5422 23969 27080 10154 15555 76758 3827 6463 1796 2775 14861 17064 16529 4403 9696 47692 6055 9530 5057 4797 25440 10523 6655 1209 5278 23665 9167 5735 686 4172 19761 1506 1653 789 1029 4977 4025 6934 1995 3117 16071 882 1048 670 1066 3667 1011 1666 1329 941 4948 580 1039 425 440 2484 6021 8108 3402 4331 21863 1352 1791 792 1352 5288 1759 1930 637 1021 5347 24549 27104 9818 16203 77675 3763 6404 1792 2838 14797 17389 16295 4163 9828 47675 6277 9761 4986 5309 26333 10675 6861 1271 5243 24050 9275 5886 763 4109 20033 1496 1655 754 925 4830 3923 7137 1952 3158 16170 937 1085 643 1080 3745 1059 1723 1317 1039 5138 605 1066 380 486 2537 6283 8246 3547 4526 22601 1489 1945 880 1489 5803 1788 1904 755 993 5440 24976 27773 9865 16457 79071 3671 6592 1743 2861 14867 17495 16684 4294 9803 48276 6544 10004 4928 5574 27050 10979 7133 1340 5446 24898 9518 6116 859 4239 20732 1452 1776 740 971 4938 3875 7347 1888 3221 16331 918 1108 578 1157 3760 1177 1767 1390 1036 5370 632 1070 390 509 2600 6644 8774 3558 4923 23899 1673 2285 956 1858 6772 1793 1856 660 960 5269 25676 28974 9884 17263 81796 3619 6795 1703 2916 15032 17747 17095 4205 10026 49073 7011 10771 5102 6079 28963 11020 7249 1396 5359 25023 9548 6198 914 4143 20802 1551 1833 744 1002 5129 3764 7595 1855 3298 16513 934 1148 558 1132 3772 1241 1849 1463 1064 5617 637 1119 437 534 2728 6781 9030 3552 4921 24283 1776 2528 904 1777 6984 1822 1876 683 963 5343 25929 29823 10004 17308 83065 3520 6996 1705 2985 15205 17753 17483 4237 10015 49490 7241 11192 5209 6161 29804 11131 7297 1055 5420 24904 9599 6226 683 4178 20687 1637 1873 766 1021 5297 3615 7853 1773 3273 16514 993 1208 615 1133 3948 1325 1950 1450 1092 5817 617 1137 417 525 2696 6826 9089 3632 5073 24620 1853 2723 938 1867 7382 1813 1758 664 979 5213 26145 30407 9708 17537 83797 3367 7221 1651 2972 15211 17739 17676 3784 10074 49274 7412 11523 5309 6330 30575 11205 7318 1082 5425 25030 9597 6199 718 4166 20680 1746 2040 810 1086 5681 3491 7763 1667 3137 16058 1053 1274 511 1136 3973 1326 2013 1532 1213 6084 634 1181 416 545 2776 7147 9151 3614 5364 25277 1983 2879 892 1988 7742 1790 1619 664 966 5039 26601 30740 9631 17905 84878 3255 7109 1553 2829 14746 17764 17459 3692 9915 48830 7785 12007 5428 6855 32075 10857 6924 946 5026 23753 9220 5790 615 3794 19419 1801 2126 814 1160 5901 3365 7937 1633 3179 16114 1096 1324 455 1170 4045 1379 2124 1644 1276 6423 666 1232 429 554 2881 7196 9496 3403 5244 25339 2175 3178 716 1930 7999 1675 1500 712 959 4845 26359 31163 9324 17609 84455 3139 7234 1516 2876 14765 17149 17088 3513 9552 47303 8115 12751 5356 6886 33108 -3.1% 45.7% -5.4% 29.2% -12.5% 4.0% -7.4% 21.2% -5.1% 100.0% -3.9% 47.5% -6.6% 29.8% -14.4% 3.2% -8.9% 19.5% -6.1% 100.0% 3.2% 30.5% 4.2% 36.0% 0.6% 13.8% 6.8% 19.7% 3.9% 100.0% -3.6% 20.9% 2.2% 49.3% -2.0% 10.1% 1.4% 19.7% 0.3% 100.0% 4.1% 27.1% 4.0% 32.7% -11.0% 11.2% 3.0% 28.9% 1.8% 100.0% 4.0% 21.5% 5.5% 33.1% 7.3% 25.6% 5.2% 19.9% 5.6% 100.0% 5.1% 23.1% 4.3% 42.8% 3.1% 14.9% 1.7% 19.2% 3.8% 100.0% 0.7% 28.4% 3.8% 37.5% -5.9% 13.4% -2.2% 20.7% 0.2% 100.0% 9.7% 27.2% 10.4% 39.7% -19.8% 8.9% -2.9% 24.1% 3.3% 100.0% -6.4% 34.6% -7.4% 31.0% 7.2% 14.7% -0.7% 19.8% -3.8% 100.0% -0.9% 1.4% -3.2% -1.7% -0.5% 31.2% 36.9% 11.0% 20.8% 100.0% -3.5% 21.3% 1.8% 49.0% -2.4% 10.3% 1.6% 19.5% 0.1% 100.0% -3.5% 36.3% -2.1% 36.1% -4.8% 7.4% -3.7% 20.2% -3.1% 100.0% 4.2% 24.5% 6.2% 38.5% -1.3% 16.2% 0.5% 20.8% 3.2% 100.0% ‡E xcludes Former Soviet Union. Notes: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures. ‘Light distillates’ consists of aviation and motor gasolines and light distillate feedstock. ‘Middle distillates’ consists of jet and heating kerosenes, and gas and diesel oils (including marine bunkers). ‘Fuel oil’ includes marine bunkers and crude oil used directly as fuel. ‘Others’ consists of refinery gas, LPG, solvents, petroleum coke, lubricants, bitumen, wax, other refined products and refinery fuel and loss. 14 Product consumption by region Million barrels daily Light distillates Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Former Soviet Union Europe S. & Cent. America North America 35 Middle distillates 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 Fuel oil 35 Others 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 Consumption growth was below the 10-year average for all fuel groups, with declines in three of the four reported categories. Middle distillates has been the fastest-growing fuel group in five of the past six years, and was the only fuel group to grow globally in 2008. 15 Spot crude prices US dollars per barrel Dubai $/bbI* Brent $/bbI† Nigerian Forcados $/bbI West Texas Intermediate $/bbI‡ 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 *1972-1985 Arabian Light, 1986-2008 Dubai dated. †1976-1983 Forties, 1984-2008 Brent dated. ‡1976-1983 Posted WTI prices, 1984-2008 Spot WTI (Cushing) prices. 1.90 2.83 10.41 10.70 11.63 12.38 13.03 29.75 35.69 34.32 31.80 28.78 28.06 27.53 13.10 16.95 13.27 15.62 20.45 16.63 17.17 14.93 14.74 16.10 18.52 18.23 12.21 17.25 26.20 22.81 23.74 26.78 33.64 49.35 61.50 68.19 94.34 – – – – 12.80 13.92 14.02 31.61 36.83 35.93 32.97 29.55 28.78 27.56 14.43 18.44 14.92 18.23 23.73 20.00 19.32 16.97 15.82 17.02 20.67 19.09 12.72 17.97 28.50 24.44 25.02 28.83 38.27 54.52 65.14 72.39 97.26 – – – – 12.87 14.21 13.65 29.25 36.98 36.18 33.29 29.54 28.14 27.75 14.46 18.39 15.00 18.30 23.85 20.11 19.61 17.41 16.25 17.26 21.16 19.33 12.62 18.00 28.42 24.23 25.04 28.66 38.13 55.69 67.07 74.48 101.43 – – – – 12.23 14.22 14.55 25.08 37.96 36.08 33.65 30.30 29.39 27.98 15.10 19.18 15.97 19.68 24.50 21.54 20.57 18.45 17.21 18.42 22.16 20.61 14.39 19.31 30.37 25.93 26.16 31.07 41.49 56.59 66.02 72.20 100.06 Source: Platts. Crude oil prices 1861-2008 US dollars per barrel World events Russian Pennsylvanian oil exports oil boom began Sumatra production began Discovery of Spindletop, Texas Growth of Venezuelan production Fears of shortage in US East Texas field discovered Post-war reconstruction Loss of Iranian supplies Suez crisis Netback pricing introduced Iranian revolution Yom Kippur war Asian financial crisis Iraq invaded Kuwait Invasion of Iraq 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1861-69 $ 2008 $ money of the day 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99 1900-09 1910-19 1920-29 1930-39 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69 1970-79 1980-89 1990-99 2000-08 0 1861-1944 US average. 1945-1983 Arabian Light posted at Ras Tanura. 1984-2008 Brent dated. 16 Rotterdam product prices US dollars per barrel US Gulf Coast product prices US dollars per barrel Gasoline Gas oil Heavy fuel oil 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Gasoline Gas oil Heavy fuel oil 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 1991 to first quarter 1992: leaded gasoline. From second quarter 1992: unleaded gasoline. 0 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 Source: Platts. Source: Platts. OECD total commercial oil stocks Million barrels 2800 Jan 2007-Dec 2007 Jan 2008-Dec 2008 2003-2007 range 2700 2600 2500 2400 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2300 Source: Monthly Oil Data Service © OECD/IEA, 2009. 17 Refinery capacities Thousand barrels daily* 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Netherlands Antilles & Aruba Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Belgium France Germany Greece Italy Netherlands Norway Russian Federation Spain Sweden Turkey United Kingdom Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Iraq Kuwait Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Total Africa Australia China India Indonesia Japan Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs 16261 1844 1449 19554 648 1768 545 1215 1938 6114 732 1918 2206 403 2385 1266 310 5572 1247 422 713 1848 6239 25261 1505 634 921 1762 235 1145 6202 2846 810 4592 1356 1096 5144 1246 2598 732 890 1258 19722 79699 15262 43688 8578 27433 16512 1861 1449 19822 643 1796 545 1248 1976 6208 736 1933 2240 403 2485 1282 323 5439 1247 422 713 1777 6145 25145 1607 634 921 1823 290 1158 6433 2950 828 5401 2190 1119 5087 1246 2598 732 914 1344 21459 82017 15304 44041 8447 29529 16595 1861 1481 19937 624 1849 545 1291 1999 6308 770 1984 2262 403 2485 1282 318 5361 1247 422 713 1778 5981 25006 1607 639 740 1806 440 1158 6390 2879 828 5407 2219 1127 5010 1255 2598 732 1062 1403 21641 82161 15373 44197 8279 29685 16785 1917 1481 20183 612 1849 545 1291 1988 6285 785 1961 2274 412 2485 1283 307 5299 1247 422 713 1769 5930 24887 1607 644 759 1806 674 1160 6650 3140 815 5643 2261 1127 4705 1255 2598 874 1062 1512 21852 82997 15455 44141 8124 30732 16757 1923 1463 20143 609 1854 545 1291 2028 6327 803 1987 2286 412 2485 1287 310 5357 1333 422 713 1785 5844 25024 1607 644 809 1810 711 1238 6819 3222 829 5479 2303 1092 4721 1255 2598 1159 1062 1487 21984 83518 15692 44413 8021 31084 16894 1959 1463 20316 609 1915 545 1291 2017 6377 805 1967 2304 412 2485 1287 310 5371 1333 422 713 1813 5841 25063 1617 644 909 1890 645 1238 6943 3171 756 5487 2293 1057 4683 1255 2598 1159 1062 1416 21766 83635 15713 44500 8035 31100 17125 1915 1463 20503 610 1915 545 1306 2023 6399 782 1982 2320 412 2497 1289 310 5371 1358 422 693 1848 5877 25161 1652 644 931 2075 620 1238 7160 3110 763 6289 2558 1057 4567 1255 2598 1159 1062 1410 22718 85051 15787 44645 8075 32331 17339 1896 1463 20698 612 1916 545 1311 2041 6425 778 1978 2322 418 2515 1279 310 5421 1377 422 613 1819 5814 25067 1652 649 931 2100 620 1238 7190 3228 711 6587 2558 1057 4529 1255 2598 1159 1065 1438 22957 85565 15829 44692 8019 32854 17443 1914 1463 20821 614 1916 545 1311 2061 6447 774 1959 2390 425 2526 1279 310 5473 1377 422 613 1836 5675 25059 1737 665 931 2100 620 1268 7321 3066 694 7029 2872 1127 4542 1255 2633 1140 1092 1445 23829 86542 15875 44916 7965 33661 17594 1907 1463 20964 625 1935 585 1311 2070 6526 745 1962 2390 425 2497 1266 310 5522 1377 422 613 1819 5711 25060 1822 674 931 2100 625 1369 7521 3052 733 7511 2983 1157 4598 1255 2671 1197 1112 1454 24671 87794 15827 45145 8014 34635 17621 1951 1463 21035 625 1942 595 1311 2115 6588 745 1962 2366 425 2486 1261 310 5547 1377 422 613 1821 5750 25086 1832 681 931 2100 673 1375 7592 3228 734 7732 2992 1157 4650 1255 2712 1197 1187 1482 25098 88627 15788 45271 8079 35277 0.2% 2.3% – 0.3% – 0.4% 1.7% – 2.2% 1.0% – – -1.0% – -0.4% -0.5% – 0.5% – – – 0.1% 0.7% 0.1% 0.5% 1.0% – – 7.7% 0.4% 0.9% 5.8% 0.1% 2.9% 0.3% – 1.1% – 1.5% – 6.7% 1.9% 1.7% 0.9% -0.3% 0.3% 0.8% 1.9% 19.9% 2.2% 1.7% 23.7% 0.7% 2.2% 0.7% 1.5% 2.4% 7.4% 0.8% 2.2% 2.7% 0.5% 2.8% 1.4% 0.3% 6.3% 1.6% 0.5% 0.7% 2.1% 6.5% 28.3% 2.1% 0.8% 1.1% 2.4% 0.8% 1.6% 8.6% 3.6% 0.8% 8.7% 3.4% 1.3% 5.2% 1.4% 3.1% 1.4% 1.3% 1.7% 28.3% 100.0% 17.8% 51.1% 9.1% 39.8% *Atmospheric distillation capacity on a calendar-day basis. Note: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures. Source: Includes data from Parpinelli Tecnon. Refinery throughputs Thousand barrels daily* 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Australasia China Japan Other Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs *Input to primary distillation units only. 14889 1709 1446 5120 19592 5639 2386 866 3060 4212 7974 66894 14092 39886 4519 22490 14804 1714 1378 5191 18997 5632 2343 880 3686 4149 8269 67043 13519 39345 4471 23226 15067 1765 1363 5337 19305 5430 2200 851 4218 4145 8884 68566 13767 39754 4583 24229 15128 1812 1398 5332 19457 5406 2440 847 4215 4107 9020 69161 13698 39762 4797 24602 14947 1862 1390 4941 19488 5482 2377 855 4395 3986 8796 68518 13477 39083 5060 24376 15304 1880 1436 5040 19991 5566 2301 823 4823 4118 9263 70545 13731 39888 5276 25381 15475 1957 1436 5430 20454 5805 2304 820 5382 4038 9916 73018 14089 40456 5413 27149 15220 1882 1415 5402 20845 6007 2477 757 5916 4136 10035 74093 14172 40269 5713 28111 15242 1835 1407 5356 20902 6276 2367 749 6155 4026 10392 74707 14002 40072 5900 28735 15156 1834 1395 5470 20705 6366 2470 767 6563 3995 10711 75432 13601 39578 6073 29781 14645 1796 1392 5479 20661 6403 2495 756 6851 3946 10754 75179 13549 38787 6173 30219 -3.4% -2.1% -0.2% 0.2% -0.2% 0.6% 1.0% -1.4% 4.4% -1.2% 0.4% -0.3% -0.4% -2.0% 1.7% 1.5% 19.5% 2.4% 1.9% 7.3% 27.5% 8.5% 3.3% 1.0% 9.1% 5.2% 14.3% 100.0% 18.0% 51.6% 8.2% 40.2% Note: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures. Source: Includes data from Energy Security Analysis, Inc. (ESAI). 18 Refinery utilization Percentage 100 90 80 North America S.& Cent. America Europe Former Soviet Union Middle East Africa Asia Pacific World 70 60 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 50 Global oil demand fell in 2008 and so did refinery crude runs. The biggest reduction was in the US, where throughputs fell by 510,000b/d. Crude runs continued to grow in China in support of domestic demand. Meanwhile global refining capacity grew by 830,000b/d, mainly in Asia Pacific. As a result, global average refinery utilization fell to 84.8%, the lowest level since 2003. Regional refining margins US dollars per barrel USGC West Texas Sour Coking NWE Brent Cracking Singapore Dubai Hydrocracking 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 Note: The refining margins presented are benchmark margins for three major global refining centres: US Gulf Coast (USGC), North West Europe (NWE – Rotterdam) and Singapore. In each case, they are based on a single crude oil appropriate for that region and have optimized product yields based on a generic refinery configuration (cracking, hydrocracking or coking), again appropriate for that region. The margins are on a semi-variable basis, i.e. the margin after all variable costs and fixed energy costs. 19 Trade movements Thousand barrels daily 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total Imports US Europe Japan Rest of World* Total World Exports US Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe Former Soviet Union Middle East North Africa West Africa Asia Pacific‡ Rest of World* Total World *Includes unidentified trade. 10382 11017 5259 14438 41096 1011 1603 1770 3240 1344 3569 18702 2712 3094 3496 556 41097 10550 10670 5346 15050 41616 956 1520 1739 3145 1851 4019 18341 2726 2985 3543 791 41616 11092 11070 5329 15880 43371 890 1703 1814 3079 1967 4273 18944 2732 3293 3736 940 43371 11618 11531 5202 16436 44787 910 1804 1882 3143 1947 4679 19098 2724 3182 3914 1506 44789 11357 11895 5070 16291 44613 904 1959 1966 2965 2234 5370 18062 2620 3134 3848 1551 44613 12254 11993 5314 17191 46752 921 2096 2115 2942 2066 6003 18943 2715 3612 3978 1361 46752 12898 12538 5203 18651 49290 991 2148 2070 3233 1993 6440 19630 2917 4048 4189 1631 49290 13525 13261 5225 19172 51182 1129 2201 2065 3528 2149 7076 19821 3070 4358 4243 1542 51182 13612 13461 5201 20287 52561 1317 2330 2102 3681 2173 7155 20204 3225 4704 4312 1359 52561 13632 13953 5032 22937 55554 1439 2457 1975 3570 2273 8334 19680 3336 4830 6004 1656 55554 12872 13751 4925 23078 54626 1967 2498 1609 3616 2023 8184 20128 3260 4587 5392 1363 54626 -5.6% -1.4% -2.1% 0.6% -1.7% 36.7% 1.6% -18.5% 1.3% -11.0% -1.8% 2.3% -2.3% -5.0% -10.2% -17.7% -1.7% 23.6% 25.2% 9.0% 42.2% 100.0% 3.6% 4.6% 2.9% 6.6% 3.7% 15.0% 36.8% 6.0% 8.4% 9.9% 2.5% 100.0% ‡Excludes Japan. Excludes trade between other Asia Pacific countries and India prior to 2007. Note: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures. Inter-area movements 2008 To Million tonnes From US Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe Africa Australasia China India Japan Singapore Other Asia Pacific Rest of World Total US Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe Former Soviet Union Middle East North Africa West Africa East & Southern Africa Australasia China India Japan Singapore Other Asia Pacific Unidentified* Total imports – 121.7 64.7 119.4 43.4 23.8 119.7 32.6 90.9 – 1.8 0.8 0.3 – – 5.3 12.3 636.6 13.1 – 1.4 1.0 8.3 1.6 6.3 8.9 5.2 – † † – – † † 2.5 48.4 17.0 – – 1.3 5.7 0.2 0.6 0.2 † – † – – 0.5 † 0.6 – 26.0 25.4 0.1 4.3 – 4.8 3.0 5.8 5.1 15.0 † – 4.0 1.6 0.1 1.0 1.5 – 71.9 24.4 1.6 7.7 25.2 – 318.5 127.6 101.3 49.5 0.6 † 0.3 3.3 1.2 2.4 2.5 14.9 680.9 1.8 – – 1.1 16.9 1.1 44.5 1.0 4.5 – – 0.4 – – 1.6 0.5 – 73.4 0.8 – – – † 0.6 5.4 0.3 – – – 0.2 – 2.6 12.1 20.0 1.7 43.6 0.8 † – 16.5 0.2 22.4 92.0 4.2 39.1 10.6 0.9 – 0.2 4.9 4.5 21.4 – 217.8 0.7 † 1.9 5.8 0.5 2.0 107.6 4.3 16.6 0.8 0.2 0.1 – 0.6 2.9 5.8 – 149.7 3.6 0.1 – 0.1 1.4 8.2 196.9 0.4 1.1 4.9 2.6 1.3 1.4 – 1.4 20.7 0.2 244.2 4.3 † 0.1 7.8 5.3 5.0 53.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 3.5 2.1 6.8 4.6 – 38.0 – 130.9 1.4 † – 0.1 1.4 6.6 238.3 3.1 6.7 0.6 6.6 9.2 20.0 2.4 49.2 – – 345.7 1.6 † † 0.1 9.7 11.8 3.1 – 0.1 – † 0.3 0.8 0.1 0.8 0.2 – 28.6 94.6 123.6 80.0 178.3 97.6 404.8 1000.7 161.5 228.8 17.8 15.5 18.8 34.4 17.1 76.0 116.5 31.7 2697.8 Thousand barrels daily From US Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe Former Soviet Union Middle East North Africa West Africa East & Southern Africa Australasia China India Japan Singapore Other Asia Pacific Unidentified* Total imports – 2459 1299 2418 900 492 2398 665 1825 – 35 15 6 – – 108 252 12872 270 – 28 21 168 33 125 179 105 – † † – – † 1 51 981 352 – – 26 118 4 12 4 1 – † – – 11 1 12 – 541 529 3 88 – 100 61 116 103 301 † – 83 32 2 22 32 – 1473 508 34 155 509 – 6428 2564 2039 992 12 1 6 70 24 50 52 307 13751 37 – – 23 352 22 899 20 90 – – 9 – – 33 11 – 1496 16 – – – 1 12 108 5 – – – 5 – 54 250 403 35 889 16 † – 334 5 453 1844 83 783 213 19 – 5 103 93 442 – 4393 14 † 38 116 11 40 2167 87 332 16 3 1 – 12 61 117 – 3016 75 1 – 1 29 165 3960 9 21 99 52 27 30 – 29 422 5 4925 89 † 1 163 110 105 1072 2 1 5 70 43 142 97 – 786 – 2685 29 † – 1 28 133 4800 63 134 12 132 191 417 51 1026 – – 7017 34 † † 2 202 236 64 – 3 – † 6 17 2 17 5 – 588 1967 2498 1609 3616 2023 8184 20128 3260 4587 357 312 388 718 356 1583 2391 650 54626 *Includes changes in the quantity of oil in transit, movements not otherwise shown, unidentified military use, etc. †Less than 0.05. 20 Major trade movements 2008 Trade flows worldwide (million tonnes) 318.5 5 43.4 24.4 121.7 121 1 23.8 49.5 90.9 64.7 32.6 119.7 25.4 119.4 25.2 44.5 4.5 101.3 10 0 92.0 92. 92 92 53.1 107.6 7 238.3 38.0 0 20.0 20.0 9 49 2 21.4 20.7 12 27.6 196.9 6.9 22.4 US Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia Pacific 39.1 Imports and exports 2008 Crude imports Million tonnes Product Crude imports exports Product exports Crude imports Thousand barrels daily Products Crude imports exports Product exports US Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe Former Soviet Union Middle East North Africa West Africa East & Southern Africa Australasia China India Japan Singapore Other Asia Pacific Unidentified* Total World 487.2 34.6 2.0 30.4 542.2 † 11.0 16.4 0.9 25.4 24.4 178.8 127.7 203.2 54.5 231.0 – 1969.9 149.5 13.8 24.0 41.4 138.7 7.1 9.7 8.2 13.5 9.0 19.2 39.0 22.0 41.0 76.4 114.6 0.8 727.9 6.9 96.4 72.8 123.8 14.0 311.3 895.0 130.7 223.0 17.0 13.7 3.7 † – 2.0 46.5 12.8 1969.9 87.7 27.2 7.2 54.5 83.5 93.5 105.7 30.8 5.8 0.8 1.8 15.0 34.4 17.1 74.0 70.1 18.9 727.9 9756 693 40 610 10859 1 220 329 18 509 489 3581 2557 4069 1092 4627 – 39451 3116 288 500 864 2892 149 202 170 281 189 400 812 458 856 1593 2390 17 15175 139 1931 1459 2479 281 6235 17925 2618 4466 340 274 75 † – 40 931 257 39451 1829 566 150 1136 1741 1948 2203 642 121 17 37 313 718 356 1542 1460 394 15175 *Includes changes in the quantity of oil in transit, movements not otherwise shown, unidentified military use, etc. †Less than 0.05. Note: Bunkers are not included as exports. Intra-area movements (for example, between countries in Europe) are excluded. 21 Natural gas Proved reserves At end 1988 Trillion cubic metres At end 1998 Trillion cubic metres At end 2007 Trillion cubic metres Trillion cubic feet At end 2008 Trillion cubic metres Share of total R/P ratio US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Peru Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Azerbaijan Denmark Germany Italy Kazakhstan Netherlands Norway Poland Romania Russian Federation Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Bahrain Iran Iraq Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Yemen Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt Libya Nigeria Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh Brunei China India Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Thailand Vietnam Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union 4.76 2.67 2.08 9.51 0.77 0.15 0.11 0.13 0.34 0.29 2.86 0.15 4.79 n/a 0.08 0.36 0.33 n/a 1.73 2.30 0.17 0.17 n/a n/a n/a 0.59 n/a 38.81 44.53 0.19 14.20 2.69 1.38 0.28 4.62 5.02 0.11 5.66 0.16 † 34.34 3.23 0.33 0.83 2.48 0.82 7.68 1.11 0.35 0.32 0.92 0.60 2.56 1.49 0.27 0.65 0.13 0.20 n/a 0.27 8.86 109.72 3.65 16.57 38.46 4.65 1.75 0.85 7.24 0.69 0.15 0.22 0.20 0.25 0.56 4.15 0.14 6.35 0.81 0.10 0.26 0.27 1.81 1.77 3.79 0.14 0.36 43.51 2.51 1.02 0.76 1.58 0.40 59.09 0.14 24.10 3.19 1.48 0.57 10.90 6.07 0.24 6.00 0.48 † 53.17 4.08 1.02 1.32 3.51 0.84 10.77 1.65 0.30 0.38 1.37 0.67 2.18 2.41 0.29 0.61 0.43 0.42 0.17 0.51 11.39 148.01 3.77 16.17 51.48 6.73 1.63 0.51 8.88 0.44 0.71 0.27 0.12 0.33 0.48 4.84 0.07 7.27 1.16 0.07 0.14 0.13 1.85 1.39 2.88 0.11 0.63 43.32 2.43 0.93 0.34 1.59 0.43 57.39 0.09 28.13 3.17 1.78 0.98 25.46 7.30 0.28 6.44 0.49 0.05 74.17 4.50 2.07 1.54 5.22 1.21 14.54 2.41 0.37 0.34 2.26 1.06 3.00 2.39 0.49 0.85 0.44 0.32 0.48 0.40 14.80 177.05 2.91 16.56 51.50 237.7 57.7 17.6 313.1 15.6 25.1 11.5 4.0 11.8 17.0 170.9 2.4 258.2 42.3 1.9 4.2 4.2 64.4 49.1 102.7 3.9 22.2 1529.2 280.6 32.6 12.1 55.8 15.6 2220.8 3.0 1045.7 111.9 62.9 34.6 899.3 267.3 10.0 227.1 17.3 1.7 2680.9 159.1 76.6 54.4 184.2 43.3 517.5 88.6 13.1 12.4 86.7 38.5 112.5 84.3 17.5 30.1 15.6 10.7 19.7 13.9 543.5 6534.0 101.4 587.3 2013.1 6.73 1.63 0.50 8.87 0.44 0.71 0.33 0.11 0.33 0.48 4.84 0.07 7.31 1.20 0.06 0.12 0.12 1.82 1.39 2.91 0.11 0.63 43.30 7.94 0.92 0.34 1.58 0.44 62.89 0.09 29.61 3.17 1.78 0.98 25.46 7.57 0.28 6.43 0.49 0.05 75.91 4.50 2.17 1.54 5.22 1.23 14.65 2.51 0.37 0.35 2.46 1.09 3.18 2.39 0.49 0.85 0.44 0.30 0.56 0.39 15.39 185.02 2.87 16.63 57.00 3.6% 0.9% 0.3% 4.8% 0.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 2.6% ◆ 4.0% 0.6% ◆ 0.1% 0.1% 1.0% 0.8% 1.6% 0.1% 0.3% 23.4% 4.3% 0.5% 0.2% 0.9% 0.2% 34.0% ◆ 16.0% 1.7% 1.0% 0.5% 13.8% 4.1% 0.2% 3.5% 0.3% ◆ 41.0% 2.4% 1.2% 0.8% 2.8% 0.7% 7.9% 1.4% 0.2% 0.2% 1.3% 0.6% 1.7% 1.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 8.3% 100.0% 1.6% 9.0% 30.8% 11.6 9.3 9.1 10.9 10.0 51.0 23.6 12.4 98.5 12.2 * 17.5 46.0 81.3 5.5 9.2 14.2 60.3 20.6 29.3 27.1 54.6 72.0 * 49.2 4.9 25.4 43.2 57.8 6.3 * * * 40.7 * 96.9 51.8 * * 18.4 * 52.1 36.9 96.9 * 66.2 68.2 65.6 21.4 28.8 32.3 35.6 45.7 38.2 39.9 22.7 * 10.5 70.1 22.1 37.4 60.4 15.1 14.6 71.8 *More than 100 years. †Less than 0.05. ◆Less than 0.05%. n/a not available. Notes: Proved reserves of natural gas – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that rate. Source of data – T he estimates in this table have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party data from Cedigaz and the OPEC Secretariat. 22 Proved reserves at end 2008 Trillion cubic metres 7.31 8.87 S. & Cent. America North America 14.65 Africa 15.39 Asia Pacific 62.89 Europe & Eurasia 75.91 Middle East Distribution of proved reserves in 1988, 1998 and 2008 Percentage Middle East Europe & Eurasia Asia Pacific Africa North America S. & Cent. America 4.4 8.7 31.3 4.9 7.3 4.3 35.9 4.8 4.0 41.0 7.9 1998 Total 148.01 trillion cubic metres 2008 Total 185.02 trillion cubic metres 7.0 1988 Total 109.72 trillion cubic metres 40.6 39.9 34.0 7.7 8.3 8.1 23 Production* Billion cubic metres 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Azerbaijan Denmark Germany Italy Kazakhstan Netherlands Norway Poland Romania Russian Federation Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Bahrain Iran Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt Libya Nigeria Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh Brunei China India Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar New Zealand Pakistan Thailand Vietnam Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs *Excluding gas flared or recycled. 538.7 173.4 38.4 750.5 29.6 2.8 6.3 6.3 8.6 32.3 2.9 88.8 5.1 7.6 16.7 17.4 7.2 64.8 44.2 3.6 14.0 534.8 12.0 16.3 90.2 49.6 12.3 895.8 8.4 50.0 9.5 5.2 19.6 46.8 5.3 37.1 3.2 185.0 76.6 14.0 6.4 5.1 5.1 107.2 30.4 7.8 10.8 23.3 24.5 64.6 38.5 1.8 4.6 17.8 17.5 0.9 3.3 245.7 2273.0 223.4 1041.8 625.3 605.9 533.3 176.8 37.1 747.2 34.6 2.3 7.4 5.2 11.7 27.4 3.5 92.0 5.4 7.8 17.8 16.0 9.0 60.2 48.5 3.4 14.0 534.6 20.6 16.4 99.1 50.3 11.5 914.7 8.7 56.4 8.6 5.5 22.1 46.2 5.4 38.5 3.4 194.7 86.0 16.8 5.0 6.0 5.8 119.7 30.8 8.3 11.2 25.2 25.1 70.0 40.8 1.7 5.3 20.3 19.2 1.3 3.3 262.6 2330.9 226.6 1047.2 636.6 647.0 543.2 182.2 37.8 763.2 37.4 3.2 7.5 5.9 14.1 27.9 3.7 99.7 5.1 8.2 16.9 15.2 10.4 58.1 49.7 3.7 13.8 528.7 42.5 16.2 108.4 51.1 11.2 939.2 8.8 60.2 9.6 8.7 23.7 49.8 5.5 38.4 3.4 208.1 84.4 21.0 5.9 12.5 6.3 130.1 31.2 10.0 11.3 27.2 26.4 65.2 45.3 3.4 5.6 21.5 20.2 1.6 3.3 272.1 2412.4 232.0 1071.0 654.4 687.0 555.5 186.5 37.4 779.4 37.1 4.7 7.7 6.1 15.2 29.6 3.9 104.3 5.0 8.4 17.0 14.0 10.5 62.4 53.9 3.9 13.6 526.2 46.4 16.6 105.8 52.0 11.0 946.7 9.1 66.0 10.5 14.0 27.0 53.7 5.0 44.9 3.0 233.3 78.2 25.2 6.2 14.9 6.8 131.3 32.5 10.7 11.4 30.3 26.4 63.3 46.9 7.0 5.9 22.7 19.6 2.0 3.6 282.4 2477.4 232.9 1093.8 657.1 726.5 536.0 187.9 38.9 762.8 36.1 4.9 9.2 6.2 17.3 28.4 3.8 106.0 4.7 8.4 17.0 13.4 10.2 60.3 65.5 4.0 13.2 538.8 48.4 16.9 103.6 51.9 11.3 967.6 9.5 75.0 9.5 15.0 29.5 56.7 6.1 43.4 2.6 247.2 80.4 27.3 5.9 14.2 7.5 135.3 32.6 11.4 11.5 32.7 27.6 69.7 48.3 8.4 5.6 24.6 20.5 2.4 5.3 300.6 2519.4 227.7 1083.9 671.2 764.3 540.8 184.7 41.2 766.6 41.0 6.4 10.0 6.1 24.7 25.2 3.6 117.1 4.6 8.0 17.7 12.7 12.6 58.1 73.1 4.0 13.0 561.4 53.5 17.5 102.9 52.0 10.7 1001.7 9.6 81.5 11.0 16.5 31.4 60.1 6.2 44.8 1.8 262.9 82.8 30.1 5.5 19.2 7.1 144.8 33.2 12.3 12.4 35.0 29.5 73.2 51.8 9.6 4.3 30.4 21.8 2.4 6.4 322.3 2615.5 223.6 1091.2 701.9 822.4 526.4 183.7 42.7 752.8 44.9 9.8 11.0 6.4 27.3 28.4 4.0 131.7 4.5 9.4 16.4 11.9 20.0 68.5 78.5 4.4 12.8 573.3 52.8 18.5 96.4 54.2 11.1 1032.5 9.8 84.9 11.9 18.5 39.2 65.7 6.4 46.3 2.5 285.1 82.0 33.0 8.1 22.8 9.3 155.2 35.3 13.2 12.2 41.5 29.2 70.3 53.9 10.2 3.8 34.5 22.4 4.2 6.2 336.8 2694.1 227.4 1088.0 723.5 882.6 511.1 187.4 45.0 743.6 45.6 11.9 11.0 6.7 30.3 27.4 4.9 137.9 5.2 10.4 15.8 11.1 22.6 62.5 85.0 4.3 12.4 580.1 57.0 18.8 88.2 54.0 10.7 1038.2 10.7 103.5 12.2 19.8 45.8 71.2 5.5 47.8 3.4 319.9 88.2 42.5 11.3 22.4 11.2 175.6 37.1 14.5 12.0 49.3 29.6 71.2 59.9 12.2 3.6 35.5 23.7 6.9 7.0 362.6 2777.8 211.9 1072.1 738.0 967.7 524.0 188.4 51.6 764.0 46.1 12.9 11.3 7.0 36.4 31.5 5.8 151.1 6.1 10.4 15.6 10.1 23.9 61.6 87.6 4.3 11.9 593.8 60.4 19.1 80.0 54.5 11.5 1050.7 11.3 108.6 12.5 23.7 50.7 73.5 5.7 49.0 4.1 339.1 84.5 54.7 13.2 28.4 11.8 192.6 38.9 15.3 12.6 58.6 29.3 70.3 59.7 12.6 3.7 36.1 24.3 6.8 10.5 378.5 2876.1 201.3 1086.6 758.0 1031.5 540.5 184.1 54.0 778.7 44.8 13.8 11.3 7.5 39.0 32.1 6.5 155.0 9.8 9.2 14.3 8.9 26.4 60.5 89.7 4.3 11.5 592.0 65.4 19.1 72.1 59.1 10.8 1053.3 11.8 111.9 12.1 24.1 63.2 74.4 5.6 50.4 4.1 357.6 84.8 55.7 15.3 35.0 13.6 204.4 40.0 16.3 12.3 69.2 30.1 67.6 60.8 13.5 4.1 36.5 26.0 7.1 13.0 396.3 2945.3 187.5 1092.1 772.2 1081.1 582.2 175.2 54.9 812.3 44.1 13.9 13.9 9.1 39.3 31.5 7.2 158.9 14.7 10.1 13.0 8.4 30.2 67.5 99.2 4.1 11.5 601.7 66.1 18.7 69.6 62.2 10.3 1087.3 13.4 116.3 12.8 24.1 76.6 78.1 5.5 50.2 4.1 381.1 86.5 58.9 15.9 35.0 18.5 214.8 38.3 17.3 12.1 76.1 30.6 69.7 62.5 12.4 3.8 37.5 28.9 7.9 14.1 411.2 3065.6 190.3 1136.6 793.7 1135.3 7.5% -5.1% 1.3% 4.1% -1.9% 0.5% 22.4% 19.8% 0.5% -2.2% 11.6% 2.2% 50.0% 9.1% -9.2% -6.1% 13.9% 11.2% 10.4% -6.6% -0.3% 1.4% 0.7% -2.3% -3.7% 4.9% -5.4% 2.9% 13.8% 3.6% 5.5% -0.3% 20.9% 4.7% -2.8% -0.7% -1.7% 6.3% 1.7% 5.4% 3.6% -0.2% 35.7% 4.8% -4.5% 6.0% -1.2% 9.6% 1.4% 2.7% 2.5% -8.5% -6.3% 2.6% 10.7% 11.9% 8.5% 3.5% 3.8% 1.2% 3.9% 2.5% 4.7% 19.3% 5.7% 1.8% 26.7% 1.4% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3% 1.3% 1.0% 0.2% 5.2% 0.5% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 1.0% 2.2% 3.2% 0.1% 0.4% 19.6% 2.1% 0.6% 2.3% 2.0% 0.3% 35.4% 0.4% 3.8% 0.4% 0.8% 2.5% 2.5% 0.2% 1.6% 0.1% 12.4% 2.8% 1.9% 0.5% 1.1% 0.6% 7.0% 1.2% 0.6% 0.4% 2.5% 1.0% 2.3% 2.0% 0.4% 0.1% 1.2% 0.9% 0.3% 0.5% 13.4% 100.0% 6.2% 37.3% 25.8% 36.9% Source: Includes data from Cedigaz. Notes: As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013 millibar (mbar); because it is derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average conversion factor, it does not necessarily equate with gas volumes expressed in specific national terms. Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes of oil equivalent figures. Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. Natural gas production data expressed in billion cubic feet per day is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview. 24 Production* Million tonnes oil equivalent 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Azerbaijan Denmark Germany Italy Kazakhstan Netherlands Norway Poland Romania Russian Federation Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Bahrain Iran Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt Libya Nigeria Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh Brunei China India Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar New Zealand Pakistan Thailand Vietnam Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs *Excluding gas flared or recycled. Note: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. 494.2 156.1 34.5 684.9 26.6 2.5 5.7 5.6 7.8 29.1 2.6 80.0 4.6 6.8 15.0 15.7 6.5 58.3 39.8 3.2 12.6 481.4 10.8 14.6 81.1 44.6 11.1 806.2 7.5 45.0 8.5 4.7 17.6 42.1 4.8 33.4 2.9 166.5 68.9 12.6 5.7 4.6 4.6 96.5 27.3 7.0 9.7 21.0 22.0 58.1 34.6 1.6 4.2 16.0 15.8 0.8 3.0 221.1 2055.1 201.1 947.1 562.7 545.3 487.4 159.1 33.4 679.9 31.1 2.0 6.7 4.7 10.6 24.7 3.1 82.8 4.9 7.0 16.1 14.4 8.1 54.2 43.6 3.1 12.6 481.1 18.6 14.8 89.2 45.3 10.3 823.2 7.8 50.7 7.8 4.9 19.8 41.6 4.9 34.6 3.1 175.3 77.4 15.1 4.5 5.4 5.2 107.7 27.7 7.5 10.1 22.7 22.6 63.0 36.8 1.5 4.8 18.3 17.3 1.2 2.9 236.3 2105.2 203.9 949.9 572.9 582.3 495.5 164.0 34.0 693.5 33.7 2.9 6.7 5.3 12.6 25.1 3.3 89.8 4.6 7.3 15.2 13.7 9.4 52.3 44.8 3.3 12.4 475.8 38.3 14.6 97.5 45.9 10.1 845.3 7.9 54.2 8.6 7.8 21.3 44.8 4.9 34.5 3.1 187.3 76.0 18.9 5.3 11.3 5.6 117.1 28.0 9.0 10.2 24.5 23.7 58.7 40.7 3.1 5.1 19.4 18.2 1.4 3.0 244.9 2177.8 208.8 970.5 589.0 618.3 508.2 167.8 33.7 709.7 33.4 4.2 6.9 5.5 13.7 26.6 3.5 93.9 4.5 7.5 15.3 12.6 9.5 56.2 48.5 3.5 12.2 473.6 41.8 14.9 95.2 46.8 9.9 852.1 8.2 59.4 9.5 12.6 24.3 48.3 4.5 40.4 2.7 209.9 70.4 22.7 5.6 13.4 6.1 118.2 29.2 9.7 10.3 27.3 23.8 57.0 42.2 6.3 5.3 20.4 17.7 1.8 3.2 254.2 2237.9 209.6 992.7 591.4 653.9 489.9 169.1 35.0 694.0 32.5 4.4 8.3 5.5 15.6 25.6 3.4 95.4 4.2 7.5 15.3 12.1 9.2 54.3 59.0 3.6 11.9 484.9 43.6 15.2 93.2 46.7 10.1 870.8 8.5 67.5 8.5 13.5 26.6 51.0 5.5 39.1 2.4 222.5 72.3 24.6 5.3 12.8 6.8 121.7 29.3 10.3 10.3 29.4 24.8 62.7 43.5 7.6 5.1 22.1 18.5 2.2 4.7 270.5 2274.9 205.0 983.0 604.1 687.9 496.2 166.2 37.0 699.4 36.9 5.7 9.0 5.5 22.3 22.7 3.3 105.4 4.2 7.2 15.9 11.5 11.3 52.2 65.8 3.6 11.7 505.2 48.1 15.8 92.6 46.8 9.6 901.5 8.7 73.4 9.9 14.9 28.3 54.1 5.6 40.3 1.6 236.6 74.5 27.1 5.0 17.3 6.4 130.3 29.9 11.1 11.1 31.5 26.6 65.9 46.6 8.6 3.9 27.4 19.6 2.1 5.8 290.1 2363.4 201.3 991.5 631.7 740.2 481.1 165.3 38.4 684.9 40.4 8.8 9.9 5.7 24.6 25.6 3.6 118.6 4.1 8.5 14.7 10.7 18.0 61.6 70.6 3.9 11.5 516.0 47.5 16.6 86.7 48.8 10.0 929.2 8.8 76.4 10.7 16.7 35.3 59.1 5.8 41.7 2.3 256.6 73.8 29.7 7.3 20.5 8.4 139.6 31.7 11.9 11.0 37.3 26.3 63.3 48.5 9.2 3.5 31.0 20.1 3.7 5.6 303.1 2432.1 204.6 986.6 651.2 794.3 468.1 168.7 40.5 677.3 41.1 10.7 9.9 6.0 27.3 24.7 4.5 124.1 4.7 9.4 14.2 10.0 20.3 56.3 76.5 3.9 11.2 522.1 51.3 16.9 79.4 48.6 9.7 934.4 9.6 93.2 11.0 17.8 41.2 64.1 4.9 43.0 3.1 287.9 79.4 38.3 10.2 20.2 10.1 158.1 33.4 13.1 10.8 44.4 26.7 64.1 54.0 11.0 3.2 32.0 21.3 6.2 6.3 326.3 2508.1 190.7 973.0 664.2 870.9 479.3 169.6 46.4 695.3 41.5 11.6 10.2 6.3 32.8 28.3 5.2 136.0 5.5 9.4 14.1 9.1 21.5 55.4 78.9 3.9 10.7 534.4 54.3 17.2 72.0 49.0 10.4 945.7 10.2 97.7 11.3 21.3 45.6 66.2 5.1 44.1 3.7 305.2 76.0 49.2 11.9 25.6 10.6 173.4 35.0 13.8 11.3 52.7 26.4 63.2 53.7 11.3 3.3 32.5 21.9 6.1 9.4 340.7 2596.3 181.2 985.7 682.2 928.4 494.5 165.7 48.6 708.8 40.3 12.4 10.2 6.8 35.1 28.9 5.8 139.5 8.8 8.3 12.9 8.0 23.8 54.5 80.7 3.9 10.4 532.8 58.9 17.2 64.9 53.2 9.7 947.9 10.6 100.7 10.9 21.6 56.9 67.0 5.1 45.4 3.7 321.9 76.3 50.1 13.8 31.5 12.2 184.0 36.0 14.6 11.0 62.3 27.1 60.9 54.7 12.2 3.7 32.8 23.4 6.4 11.7 356.7 2658.8 168.7 990.9 694.9 973.0 533.0 157.7 49.4 740.0 39.7 12.5 12.5 8.2 35.4 28.3 6.5 143.0 13.3 9.1 11.7 7.5 27.2 60.8 89.3 3.7 10.4 541.5 59.5 16.9 62.6 56.0 9.2 978.6 12.1 104.7 11.5 21.6 69.0 70.3 4.9 45.2 3.7 343.0 77.9 53.0 14.3 31.5 16.7 193.3 34.4 15.6 10.9 68.5 27.5 62.7 56.3 11.2 3.4 33.8 26.0 7.1 12.7 370.1 2768.0 171.3 1031.9 714.3 1021.8 7.5% -5.1% 1.3% 4.1% -1.9% 0.5% 22.4% 19.8% 0.5% -2.2% 11.6% 2.2% 50.0% 9.1% -9.2% -6.1% 13.9% 11.2% 10.4% -6.6% -0.3% 1.4% 0.7% -2.3% -3.7% 4.9% -5.4% 2.9% 13.8% 3.6% 5.5% -0.3% 20.9% 4.7% -2.8% -0.7% -1.7% 6.3% 1.7% 5.4% 3.6% -0.2% 35.7% 4.8% -4.5% 6.0% -1.2% 9.6% 1.4% 2.7% 2.5% -8.5% -6.3% 2.6% 10.7% 11.9% 8.5% 3.5% 3.8% 1.2% 3.9% 2.5% 4.7% 19.3% 5.7% 1.8% 26.7% 1.4% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3% 1.3% 1.0% 0.2% 5.2% 0.5% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 1.0% 2.2% 3.2% 0.1% 0.4% 19.6% 2.1% 0.6% 2.3% 2.0% 0.3% 35.4% 0.4% 3.8% 0.4% 0.8% 2.5% 2.5% 0.2% 1.6% 0.1% 12.4% 2.8% 1.9% 0.5% 1.1% 0.6% 7.0% 1.2% 0.6% 0.4% 2.5% 1.0% 2.3% 2.0% 0.4% 0.1% 1.2% 0.9% 0.3% 0.5% 13.4% 100.0% 6.2% 37.3% 25.8% 36.9% Source: Includes data from Cedigaz. 25 Production by region Billion cubic metres Rest of World Asia Pacific Europe & Eurasia North America 3200 2800 2400 2000 1600 1200 800 400 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 World natural gas production grew by a robust 3.8% in 2008, the strongest volumetric growth since 1984. For the second consecutive year, the US recorded the largest increase, with growth of 41.7bcm. Growth was below the 10-year average for all regions except North America and Europe and Eurasia. Canada recorded the world’s largest decline. Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios Years 80 2008 by region 250 World 70 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia Pacific 200 60 50 150 40 100 30 20 50 10 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 0 0 Global proved reserves of natural gas increased by 7.97tcm in 2008, and the R/P ratio increased to 60.4 years. Increases in Turkmenistan and Iran accounted for most of the growth. 26 Consumption Billion cubic metres 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium & Luxembourg Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Republic of Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt South Africa Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh China China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs 629.9 83.4 39.5 752.8 30.5 6.4 3.7 6.2 0.3 0.4 32.3 10.0 89.8 8.3 5.1 14.6 13.8 3.5 8.5 4.7 3.7 37.0 79.7 0.8 10.9 – 3.1 57.2 7.1 2.3 39.6 3.8 10.6 0.8 18.7 353.8 6.4 13.1 0.9 2.6 10.3 10.0 66.7 87.9 45.6 14.4 945.4 51.8 9.5 14.8 46.8 30.4 21.6 174.8 20.9 13.7 – 15.0 49.5 19.8 7.8 20.3 3.0 24.5 29.5 66.1 17.4 4.6 17.8 † 1.5 15.4 6.2 17.6 4.5 255.8 2268.2 414.3 1262.4 513.7 492.1 634.4 87.4 37.4 759.2 32.4 7.6 5.0 5.2 0.3 0.4 27.4 11.3 89.5 8.5 5.4 14.8 14.7 3.0 8.6 5.0 3.7 37.7 80.2 1.5 11.0 – 3.3 62.2 7.7 2.4 38.5 3.6 10.3 2.3 17.2 352.8 6.4 15.0 0.8 2.7 12.4 11.0 70.9 93.6 47.8 12.7 967.5 58.4 8.6 14.0 46.2 31.4 22.5 181.1 21.3 16.4 – 15.6 53.4 20.2 8.3 21.5 3.3 25.1 32.0 69.4 16.1 5.3 20.3 † 1.5 18.7 6.3 19.2 4.9 272.2 2322.8 428.6 1294.8 520.2 507.8 660.7 92.8 40.2 793.7 33.2 9.4 6.5 5.9 0.3 0.3 27.9 11.9 95.5 8.1 5.2 15.7 14.9 3.3 8.3 4.9 3.7 39.7 79.5 2.0 10.7 – 3.8 64.9 9.4 2.7 39.0 4.0 11.1 2.4 17.1 366.0 6.5 16.9 0.7 2.7 14.6 12.2 71.0 96.9 45.7 13.2 996.9 62.9 9.6 9.7 49.8 31.4 23.4 186.7 19.8 20.0 – 17.4 57.2 20.5 10.0 24.5 3.0 26.4 29.7 72.3 24.3 5.6 21.5 † 1.7 21.0 6.8 22.0 5.5 294.9 2424.8 440.1 1348.4 535.5 541.0 629.7 88.2 40.7 758.7 31.1 11.9 7.3 6.1 0.3 0.4 29.6 13.6 100.3 8.6 7.5 15.7 14.6 3.0 8.9 5.1 4.1 41.7 82.9 2.0 11.9 – 4.0 65.0 9.8 2.8 40.0 3.8 11.5 2.6 16.6 361.5 6.9 18.2 0.7 2.8 16.0 12.5 68.8 96.4 49.6 14.5 1010.0 70.1 10.5 11.0 53.7 37.9 23.7 206.8 20.5 24.5 – 17.6 62.6 22.0 10.7 27.4 3.0 26.4 31.0 74.3 25.8 5.9 22.7 0.1 4.6 23.1 7.3 24.8 5.8 314.9 2453.3 450.8 1331.7 536.5 585.1 651.5 90.2 45.8 787.4 30.3 14.1 7.4 6.1 0.2 0.4 28.4 14.4 101.4 8.5 7.5 16.1 14.8 2.7 8.7 5.1 4.0 41.7 82.6 2.1 11.8 – 4.1 64.6 10.8 2.9 39.8 4.0 11.2 3.1 17.2 377.3 6.5 20.8 0.8 2.8 17.4 12.9 67.7 95.1 50.9 13.6 1029.1 79.2 9.5 11.1 56.7 36.4 24.7 217.6 20.2 26.5 – 18.0 64.7 22.4 11.4 29.2 2.9 27.6 32.9 72.7 26.7 5.6 24.6 1.8 5.0 25.7 8.2 26.9 6.0 329.5 2529.7 451.5 1363.5 553.3 612.9 630.8 97.7 50.6 779.1 34.6 15.8 8.0 6.0 0.3 0.5 25.2 15.9 106.3 9.4 7.7 15.8 16.0 2.8 8.7 5.2 4.5 43.3 85.5 2.4 13.2 – 4.1 71.2 12.9 3.1 40.0 4.3 11.2 3.0 18.3 381.2 6.3 23.6 0.8 2.9 20.9 14.2 65.8 95.4 45.8 14.1 1053.9 82.9 11.0 12.2 60.1 37.9 25.0 229.0 21.4 29.7 – 20.4 71.5 22.4 12.3 33.9 1.8 29.5 35.2 79.8 27.1 4.3 30.4 2.7 5.4 26.9 8.4 28.8 6.5 355.6 2595.5 471.6 1384.6 554.3 656.6 634.0 95.1 53.4 782.4 37.9 18.7 8.7 6.3 0.3 0.9 28.4 16.2 117.4 9.5 8.3 17.9 16.5 2.8 9.1 5.2 4.3 44.5 85.9 2.7 13.0 – 4.1 73.9 14.9 3.1 40.9 4.6 13.1 3.8 17.5 389.9 6.1 27.4 0.8 3.0 22.1 15.0 71.0 97.4 43.4 15.6 1087.2 86.5 11.9 15.0 65.7 40.2 27.8 247.1 22.0 31.7 – 23.6 77.4 22.8 13.2 39.7 2.7 31.9 33.2 77.0 24.5 3.8 34.5 2.4 6.5 31.5 10.2 29.9 8.7 372.3 2683.9 485.0 1405.3 572.1 706.5 623.3 98.1 53.3 774.7 40.4 19.3 8.4 6.7 0.4 1.5 27.4 19.5 123.7 10.0 8.6 18.4 16.6 3.1 9.6 5.0 4.0 45.8 86.2 2.8 13.4 – 3.9 79.1 18.8 3.3 39.3 4.5 13.6 4.2 17.6 393.0 6.6 32.4 0.8 3.1 26.9 16.1 70.9 94.7 42.7 15.8 1110.6 105.0 12.2 18.7 71.2 42.1 30.1 279.2 23.2 31.6 – 24.5 79.4 21.9 14.5 46.8 2.7 35.7 35.2 78.6 29.3 3.6 35.5 3.3 6.5 33.7 10.3 32.5 12.1 402.2 2769.8 495.5 1414.8 580.9 774.1 614.1 96.9 60.9 771.9 41.8 20.6 7.8 7.0 0.7 1.8 31.5 24.0 135.2 9.4 9.1 19.0 17.0 3.2 9.3 5.1 4.2 44.1 87.2 3.2 12.7 – 4.5 77.4 20.3 3.2 38.1 4.4 13.7 4.1 18.1 419.2 6.0 33.7 0.9 3.0 30.5 18.4 65.1 90.1 41.9 16.3 1132.4 108.7 12.5 19.6 73.5 43.4 33.8 291.5 23.7 36.5 – 23.7 83.9 24.0 15.3 56.1 2.9 37.3 35.9 83.7 29.0 3.7 36.1 2.9 8.6 35.6 11.1 33.3 12.3 427.8 2842.7 488.9 1417.4 605.7 819.6 652.6 96.7 63.1 812.4 43.9 22.0 4.6 7.4 0.5 2.7 32.2 24.6 137.9 8.9 8.0 18.8 16.9 3.3 8.4 4.6 3.9 42.5 82.9 4.0 12.0 – 4.8 77.8 19.5 3.6 37.0 4.3 13.7 4.2 16.1 425.7 5.7 35.1 1.0 2.9 35.1 21.3 62.7 90.9 45.9 16.8 1138.3 113.0 12.1 19.7 74.4 49.3 34.8 303.3 24.3 38.4 – 26.5 89.2 24.9 16.3 69.5 2.2 40.1 34.0 90.2 28.5 4.1 36.5 3.4 8.6 38.5 11.8 35.4 13.0 456.8 2938.0 480.9 1466.7 615.1 856.1 657.2 100.0 67.2 824.4 44.5 25.2 2.6 8.2 0.6 3.4 32.4 26.3 143.0 9.5 9.3 19.2 17.0 3.3 8.7 4.6 4.0 44.2 82.0 4.2 12.0 – 5.0 77.7 20.6 3.2 38.6 4.4 13.9 4.6 14.5 420.2 5.7 39.0 1.0 3.1 36.0 19.0 59.7 93.9 48.7 17.1 1143.9 117.6 12.8 19.8 78.1 58.1 40.7 327.1 25.4 40.9 – 28.6 94.9 23.5 17.3 80.7 2.6 41.4 38.0 93.7 30.7 3.8 37.5 3.5 9.2 39.7 12.8 37.4 13.6 485.3 3018.7 490.1 1494.3 609.6 914.9 0.6% 3.2% 6.2% 1.3% 1.0% 14.2% -43.2% 9.3% 7.4% 26.6% 0.3% 6.6% 3.5% 6.3% 16.0% 1.9% 0.5% -0.3% 3.1% 0.5% 0.8% 3.7% -1.3% 4.2% -0.1% – 4.3% -0.4% 5.1% -10.5% 3.9% 2.9% 1.4% 8.3% -9.8% -1.6% 1.1% 10.7% -7.6% 5.4% 2.5% -10.9% -5.0% 3.0% 5.9% 1.2% 0.2% 3.8% 5.5% 0.4% 4.7% 17.5% 16.7% 7.6% 4.1% 6.3% – 7.6% 6.1% -5.7% 6.0% 15.8% 15.4% 3.0% 11.5% 3.6% 7.2% -6.3% 2.6% 1.1% 6.6% 2.8% 8.4% 5.6% 4.3% 5.9% 2.5% 1.6% 1.7% -1.2% 6.6% 22.0% 3.3% 2.2% 27.6% 1.5% 0.8% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% 1.1% 0.9% 4.7% 0.3% 0.3% 0.6% 0.6% 0.1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 1.5% 2.7% 0.1% 0.4% – 0.2% 2.6% 0.7% 0.1% 1.3% 0.1% 0.5% 0.2% 0.5% 13.9% 0.2% 1.3% ◆ ◆ 0.1% 1.2% 0.6% 2.0% 3.1% 1.6% 0.6% 37.8% 3.9% 0.4% 0.7% 2.6% 1.9% 1.3% 10.8% 0.8% 1.3% – 0.9% 3.1% 0.8% 0.6% 2.7% 0.1% 1.4% 1.3% 3.1% 1.0% 0.1% 1.2% 0.1% 0.3% 1.3% 0.4% 1.2% 0.4% 16.0% 100.0% 16.2% 49.7% 20.1% 30.2% †Less than 0.05. Source: Includes data from Cedigaz. ◆Less than 0.05%. Notes: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes of oil equivalent figures. Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. The difference between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics on page 24 is due to variations in stocks at storage facilities and liquefaction plants, together with unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of gas supply and demand data. As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013mbar); because it is derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average conversion factor, it does not necessarily equate with gas volumes expressed in specific national terms. Natural gas consumption data expressed in billion cubic feet per day is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview. 27 Consumption Million tonnes oil equivalent 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium & Luxembourg Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Republic of Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt South Africa Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh China China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs 575.3 75.1 35.5 685.9 27.5 5.7 3.3 5.6 0.3 0.4 29.1 9.0 80.8 7.5 4.6 13.1 12.4 3.1 7.7 4.3 3.3 33.3 71.7 0.8 9.8 – 2.8 51.5 6.4 2.1 35.6 3.4 9.5 0.7 16.8 318.5 5.7 11.8 0.8 2.4 9.2 9.0 60.0 79.1 41.0 12.9 850.8 46.6 8.5 13.3 42.1 27.4 19.4 157.3 18.8 12.3 – 13.5 44.6 17.8 7.0 18.2 2.7 22.0 26.5 59.5 15.7 4.2 16.0 † 1.4 13.8 5.6 15.8 4.1 230.3 2049.7 372.9 1144.6 462.3 442.8 577.3 78.6 33.6 689.6 29.1 6.8 4.5 4.7 0.3 0.4 24.7 10.2 80.6 7.6 4.9 13.4 13.3 2.7 7.7 4.5 3.3 33.9 72.1 1.3 9.9 – 3.0 56.0 6.9 2.2 34.7 3.2 9.3 2.0 15.5 317.5 5.8 13.5 0.8 2.4 11.1 9.9 63.8 84.2 43.0 11.4 870.8 52.5 7.8 12.6 41.6 28.3 20.3 163.0 19.2 14.8 – 14.1 48.0 18.2 7.5 19.3 3.0 22.6 28.8 62.5 14.5 4.8 18.3 † 1.4 16.8 5.7 17.3 4.4 245.0 2096.9 385.7 1171.7 468.2 457.0 600.4 83.5 36.2 720.0 29.9 8.5 5.8 5.3 0.3 0.3 25.1 10.7 85.9 7.3 4.7 14.2 13.4 2.9 7.5 4.4 3.4 35.7 71.5 1.8 9.7 – 3.4 58.4 8.5 2.5 35.1 3.6 10.0 2.1 15.4 329.4 5.8 15.2 0.7 2.4 13.1 11.0 63.9 87.2 41.1 11.9 897.2 56.6 8.6 8.7 44.8 28.3 21.0 168.1 17.9 18.0 – 15.7 51.5 18.5 9.0 22.1 2.7 23.7 26.8 65.1 21.9 5.1 19.4 † 1.6 18.9 6.1 19.8 4.9 265.4 2188.1 396.1 1219.3 481.9 486.9 573.9 79.4 36.7 689.9 28.0 10.7 6.6 5.5 0.3 0.3 26.6 12.2 90.2 7.7 6.8 14.1 13.2 2.7 8.0 4.6 3.7 37.5 74.6 1.8 10.7 – 3.6 58.5 8.8 2.5 36.0 3.4 10.4 2.3 14.9 325.4 6.2 16.4 0.6 2.5 14.4 11.2 61.9 86.7 44.6 13.0 909.0 63.1 9.5 9.9 48.3 34.1 21.3 186.1 18.5 22.1 – 15.9 56.4 19.8 9.7 24.7 2.7 23.8 27.9 66.8 23.2 5.3 20.4 0.1 4.1 20.8 6.6 22.3 5.2 283.4 2215.1 405.7 1205.7 482.8 526.6 593.7 81.2 41.2 716.0 27.2 12.7 6.6 5.5 0.2 0.4 25.6 12.9 91.2 7.7 6.8 14.5 13.4 2.4 7.8 4.6 3.6 37.5 74.3 1.9 10.6 – 3.7 58.1 9.7 2.6 35.8 3.6 10.1 2.8 15.5 339.6 5.8 18.8 0.7 2.5 15.6 11.6 60.9 85.6 45.8 12.2 926.2 71.3 8.5 10.0 51.0 32.8 22.2 195.8 18.2 23.9 – 16.2 58.2 20.2 10.3 26.3 2.6 24.8 29.6 65.4 24.0 5.1 22.1 1.6 4.5 23.1 7.4 24.2 5.4 296.5 2284.0 406.3 1234.4 498.0 551.6 577.0 87.9 45.5 710.4 31.1 14.2 7.2 5.4 0.2 0.5 22.7 14.3 95.7 8.5 7.0 14.3 14.4 2.5 7.8 4.7 4.0 39.0 77.0 2.2 11.9 – 3.7 64.1 11.6 2.8 36.0 3.9 10.1 2.7 16.5 343.1 5.7 21.3 0.7 2.6 18.8 12.8 59.2 85.8 41.2 12.7 948.5 74.6 9.9 11.0 54.1 34.1 22.5 206.1 19.3 26.7 – 18.4 64.4 20.2 11.1 30.5 1.7 26.6 31.7 71.8 24.4 3.9 27.4 2.4 4.8 24.2 7.6 26.0 5.9 320.1 2345.2 424.4 1255.4 498.8 591.0 577.9 85.6 48.0 711.4 34.1 16.8 7.8 5.7 0.3 0.8 25.6 14.6 105.7 8.5 7.5 16.1 14.9 2.5 8.2 4.7 3.9 40.1 77.3 2.4 11.7 – 3.7 66.5 13.4 2.8 36.8 4.1 11.8 3.4 15.7 350.9 5.5 24.7 0.7 2.7 19.9 13.5 63.9 87.7 39.1 14.0 978.5 77.9 10.7 13.5 59.1 36.2 25.0 222.4 19.8 28.5 – 21.3 69.6 20.5 11.9 35.7 2.4 28.7 29.8 69.3 22.0 3.5 31.0 2.1 5.9 28.4 9.2 26.9 7.8 335.1 2422.8 436.5 1272.1 514.9 635.8 569.1 88.3 48.0 705.4 36.4 17.4 7.5 6.0 0.3 1.4 24.7 17.6 111.3 9.0 7.7 16.5 14.9 2.8 8.6 4.5 3.6 41.3 77.6 2.5 12.1 – 3.5 71.2 16.9 2.9 35.3 4.0 12.3 3.8 15.8 353.7 5.9 29.1 0.7 2.8 24.2 14.5 63.8 85.2 38.4 14.2 999.6 94.5 11.0 16.8 64.1 37.8 27.1 251.3 20.9 28.4 – 22.1 71.4 19.7 13.1 42.1 2.4 32.1 31.7 70.7 26.4 3.2 32.0 3.0 5.9 30.4 9.3 29.3 10.9 362.0 2501.0 445.9 1281.4 522.8 696.7 560.0 87.3 54.8 702.1 37.6 18.5 7.0 6.3 0.7 1.6 28.3 21.6 121.7 8.5 8.2 17.1 15.3 2.9 8.4 4.6 3.8 39.7 78.5 2.9 11.5 – 4.0 69.7 18.2 2.9 34.3 4.0 12.3 3.7 16.3 377.3 5.4 30.3 0.8 2.7 27.4 16.5 58.6 81.1 37.7 14.7 1019.2 97.8 11.3 17.6 66.2 39.0 30.4 262.3 21.4 32.9 – 21.3 75.5 21.6 13.8 50.5 2.6 33.5 32.3 75.4 26.1 3.3 32.5 2.6 7.7 32.0 10.0 30.0 11.0 385.0 2565.8 440.0 1283.1 545.1 737.6 595.4 87.0 56.8 739.3 39.5 19.8 4.1 6.7 0.5 2.4 29.0 22.1 124.1 8.0 7.2 16.9 15.2 2.9 7.6 4.1 3.5 38.3 74.6 3.6 10.8 – 4.3 70.0 17.6 3.3 33.3 3.8 12.3 3.8 14.5 383.1 5.1 31.6 0.9 2.6 31.6 19.1 56.4 81.8 41.3 15.1 1024.5 101.7 10.9 17.7 67.0 44.4 31.3 273.0 21.9 34.5 – 23.9 80.3 22.4 14.6 62.6 2.0 36.0 30.6 81.2 25.7 3.7 32.8 3.1 7.7 34.7 10.6 31.8 11.7 411.2 2652.2 432.8 1328.1 553.6 770.5 600.7 90.0 60.5 751.2 40.0 22.7 2.3 7.3 0.5 3.1 29.1 23.6 128.7 8.5 8.4 17.3 15.3 2.9 7.8 4.1 3.6 39.8 73.8 3.8 10.8 – 4.5 69.9 18.5 2.9 34.7 4.0 12.5 4.1 13.1 378.2 5.2 35.1 0.9 2.8 32.4 17.1 53.8 84.5 43.8 15.4 1029.6 105.8 11.5 17.9 70.3 52.3 36.6 294.4 22.8 36.8 – 25.8 85.4 21.2 15.6 72.6 2.3 37.2 34.2 84.4 27.6 3.4 33.8 3.1 8.3 35.7 11.5 33.7 12.2 436.8 2726.1 441.1 1354.1 548.6 823.4 0.6% 3.2% 6.2% 1.3% 1.0% 14.2% -43.2% 9.3% 7.4% 26.6% 0.3% 6.6% 3.5% 6.3% 16.0% 1.9% 0.5% -0.3% 3.1% 0.5% 0.8% 3.7% -1.3% 4.2% -0.1% – 4.3% -0.4% 5.1% -10.5% 3.9% 2.9% 1.4% 8.3% -9.8% -1.6% 1.1% 10.7% -7.6% 5.4% 2.5% -10.9% -5.0% 3.0% 5.9% 1.2% 0.2% 3.8% 5.5% 0.4% 4.7% 17.5% 16.7% 7.6% 4.1% 6.3% – 7.6% 6.1% -5.7% 6.0% 15.8% 15.4% 3.0% 11.5% 3.6% 7.2% -6.3% 2.6% 1.1% 6.6% 2.8% 8.4% 5.6% 4.3% 5.9% 2.5% 1.6% 1.7% -1.2% 6.6% 22.0% 3.3% 2.2% 27.6% 1.5% 0.8% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% 1.1% 0.9% 4.7% 0.3% 0.3% 0.6% 0.6% 0.1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 1.5% 2.7% 0.1% 0.4% – 0.2% 2.6% 0.7% 0.1% 1.3% 0.1% 0.5% 0.2% 0.5% 13.9% 0.2% 1.3% ◆ ◆ 0.1% 1.2% 0.6% 2.0% 3.1% 1.6% 0.6% 37.8% 3.9% 0.4% 0.7% 2.6% 1.9% 1.3% 10.8% 0.8% 1.3% – 0.9% 3.1% 0.8% 0.6% 2.7% 0.1% 1.4% 1.3% 3.1% 1.0% 0.1% 1.2% 0.1% 0.3% 1.3% 0.4% 1.2% 0.4% 16.0% 100.0% 16.2% 49.7% 20.1% 30.2% †Less than 0.05. Source: Includes data from Cedigaz. ◆Less than 0.05%. Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. The difference between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics on page 25 is due to variations in stocks at storage facilities and liquefaction plants, together with unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of gas supply and demand data. 28 Consumption by region Billion cubic metres Rest of World Asia Pacific Europe & Eurasia North America 3200 2800 2000 2000 1600 1200 800 400 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 World natural gas consumption grew by 2.5% in 2008, below the historical average. Growth was broadly distributed, although only North America and the Middle East saw above average growth in aggregate. China accounted for the largest increment to gas consumption, while Russia recorded the largest decline. Consumption per capita 2008 Tonnes oil equivalent 0-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-1.5 1.5-2.0 > 2.0 29 Trade movements 2008 by pipeline Bo livi a Ot he Am r S eri & C ca en t Billion cubic metres From Ru ssi an Fe d Tu rkm en ist Ot an h & er Eu Eu rop ras ia e Ne the rla nd s No rw ay Un i Kin ted gd om Mo zam biq ue Ind on es ia Ma lay sia Ge rm an y Be lgiu m Me xic o Ca na da Qa tar To North America US – 103.20 Canada 15.90 – Mexico 10.28 – S. & Cent. America Argentina – – Brazil – – Chile – – Others – – Europe Austria – – Belgium – – Bulgaria – – Croatia – – Czech Republic – – Finland – – France – – Germany – – Greece – – Hungary – – Ireland – – Italy – – Lithuania – – Luxembourg – – Netherlands – – Poland – – Portugal – – Romania – – Serbia – – Slovakia – – Spain – – Switzerland – – Turkey – – United Kingdom – – Others – – Middle East Iran – – Jordan – – United Arab Emirates – – Others – – Africa Tunisia – – Other Africa – – Asia Pacific Singapore – – Thailand – – Total exports 26.18 103.20 US 1.21 – – – – – – – – – 0.13 0.69 0.97 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.79 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.80 – – – – – – 0.60 – – – – – – – – – 1.12 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 6.50 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.23 – – 0.16 2.40 0.40 0.50 – – – – 2.14 1.50 – 1.00 – – 0.10 0.40 2.95 – 0.91 0.40 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5.80 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2.72 – 0.14 – – – – 2.86 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9.87 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9.87 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.20 – – 3.20 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 6.65 – 6.65 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.62 – 1.62 – 0.89 – 10.90 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.20 – 1.10 0.70 7.90 7.95 – – – – – – – – 2.01 – – – 2.40 8.00 15.90 – 20.50 26.40 – – – 2.10 – – – – – 1.10 8.70 6.00 – – – 0.60 – – 4.40 – 6.23 1.10 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.80 1.45 0.90 0.09 – – – – 9.00 25.30 0.09 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5.80 1.70 – – 3.10 – 1.06 – 6.60 – 4.50 0.60 8.80 1.60 36.20 – 2.80 – 8.90 5.00 – 0.70 24.50 – 3.09 – – 0.90 4.33 – 7.20 – – – 3.50 – 2.15 – 5.60 – – – 0.35 – 23.55 – – – 2.38 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 24.44 – – – – – – – – – 1.93 – – – – – – – 8.97 – – – – – – – 0.41 – – – – 1.25 0.50 – – – – – 15.40 – 1.70 – – – – My an ma r Alg eri a Eg yp t Total imports Lib ya Ira n – 104.41 – 15.90 – 10.28 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.89 11.03 0.69 0.97 8.10 18.25 3.10 1.29 8.61 4.50 36.66 87.10 3.20 11.50 5.00 75.31 3.09 1.20 18.00 9.80 1.93 4.50 2.15 5.60 10.87 3.19 32.30 35.42 3.79 6.90 2.72 15.40 1.84 1.25 3.70 – – – – 1.21 11.79 – – – – – – – – – – – – 2.52 15.14 55.00 92.78 10.50 154.41 – – – – 6.50 13.09 – – – – – – 5.80 17.10 37.50 – 8.27 8.55 8.55 8.55 587.26 N otes: Flows are on a contractual basis and may not correspond to physical gas flows in all cases. Data excludes trade within the Former Soviet Union, except the three Baltic States. Source: Cedigaz (provisional). Trade movements 2008 – liquefied natural gas Billion cubic metres From Eq Gu uato ine rial a Tri & nidad To ba go Ind on es ia Nig eri a Au str alia Be lgiu m No rw ay Alg eri a Om an Eg yp t Lib ya Bru ne i Qa tar To North America US Mexico S. & Cent. America Argentina Dominican Republic Puerto Rico Europe Belgium France Greece Italy Portugal Spain Turkey United Kingdom Asia Pacific China India Japan South Korea Taiwan Total exports US UA E Ma lay sia Total imports – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.97 – – 0.97 7.47 1.28 0.33 0.47 0.81 0.08 0.08 0.08 – – 4.32 – 0.47 – 0.24 0.67 0.84 0.22 17.36 – – – – – –0.40 – – – 0.05 0.18 – – – 0.09 – 0.08 – 0.00 0.48 0.08 – – – 0.08 0.25 – – – 1.05 – – – 0.08 0.17 – – 2.19 – – – – – – – – – – 0.17 – – – 0.35 4.25 6.04 0.09 10.90 0.09 0.09 – – – 2.65 – – – – 5.12 – 0.12 – 7.98 10.91 11.62 1.10 39.68 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.13 7.41 – – 7.54 – – – – – 7.60 0.70 1.56 – 4.90 4.25 0.37 0.17 0.65 1.12 0.47 0.08 21.87 1.56 1.12 0.08 – – 0.08 1.06 0.16 – – 4.91 0.08 0.08 0.25 0.26 2.21 2.13 0.08 14.06 – – – – – – – – – – 0.08 – – 0.16 0.44 1.64 1.33 1.53 5.18 – – – – – – – – – – 0.53 – – – – – – – 0.53 0.34 1.04 – – – – 3.60 – – 2.58 7.47 0.98 – 0.24 0.41 2.36 0.16 1.36 20.54 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.61 0.16 15.94 0.53 – 20.24 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 8.22 0.98 – 9.20 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 18.79 4.06 4.00 26.85 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.01 – 17.47 8.31 3.61 29.40 9.94 3.61 0.41 0.47 0.81 2.49 12.59 0.94 1.56 2.63 28.73 5.31 1.04 4.44 10.79 92.13 36.55 12.07 226.51 Note: T he negative entry for ‘from Belgium to Belgium’ represents the re-export of LNG which was delivered to Zeebrugge terminal and then reloaded and shipped to other destinations. Source: Cedigaz (provisional). 30 Major trade movements Trade flows worldwide (billion cubic metres) 130.9 67.5 25.3 5.0 5.5 46.0 21.5 13.7 10.3 7.5 9.0 23.6 22.6 45.6 4.3 7.9 5.8 15.4 8.5 3.3 6.7 4.0 10.9 3.2 8.6 6.5 17.7 13.4 7.6 44.5 103.2 15.9 4.6 3.6 15.9 US Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia Pacific Pipeline gas LNG Prices US dollars per million Btu LNG Japan cif European Union cif Natural gas UK Heren NBP Index† US Henry Hub‡ Canada Alberta‡ Crude oil OECD countries cif 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 5.23 4.10 3.35 3.34 3.28 3.64 3.99 3.62 3.52 3.18 3.46 3.66 3.91 3.05 3.14 4.72 4.64 4.27 4.77 5.18 6.05 7.14 7.73 12.55 3.83 3.65 2.59 2.36 2.09 2.82 3.18 2.76 2.53 2.24 2.37 2.43 2.65 2.26 1.80 3.25 4.15 3.46 4.40 4.56 5.95 8.69 8.93 12.61 – – – – – – – – – – – 1.87 1.96 1.86 1.58 2.71 3.17 2.37 3.33 4.46 7.38 7.87 6.01 10.79 – – – – 1.70 1.64 1.49 1.77 2.12 1.92 1.69 2.76 2.53 2.08 2.27 4.23 4.07 3.33 5.63 5.85 8.79 6.76 6.95 8.85 – – – – – 1.05 0.89 0.98 1.69 1.45 0.89 1.12 1.36 1.42 2.00 3.75 3.61 2.57 4.83 5.03 7.25 5.83 6.17 7.99 4.75 2.57 3.09 2.56 3.01 3.82 3.33 3.19 2.82 2.70 2.96 3.54 3.29 2.16 2.98 4.83 4.08 4.17 4.89 6.27 8.74 10.66 11.95 16.76 †Price is for NBP Day-Ahead Index. Source: ICIS Heren Energy Ltd. ‡Source: Natural Gas Week. Note: Btu = British thermal units; cif = cost+insurance+freight (average prices). 31 Coal Proved reserves at end 2008 Million tonnes Anthracite and bituminous Subbituminous and lignite Total Share of total R/P ratio US Canada Mexico Total North America Brazil Colombia Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Bulgaria Czech Republic Germany Greece Hungary Kazakhstan Poland Romania Russian Federation Spain Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia South Africa Zimbabwe Other Africa Middle East Total Middle East & Africa Australia China India Indonesia Japan New Zealand North Korea Pakistan South Korea Thailand Vietnam Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs *More than 500 years. ◆Less 108950 3471 860 113281 – 6434 479 51 6964 5 1673 152 – 199 28170 6012 12 49088 200 – 15351 155 1025 102042 30408 502 929 1386 33225 36800 62200 54000 1721 355 33 300 1 133 – 150 115 155809 411321 8427 159012 93609 158700 129358 3107 351 132816 7059 380 – 603 8042 1991 2828 6556 3900 3103 3130 1490 410 107922 330 1814 18522 – 18208 170204 – – 174 – 174 39400 52300 4600 2607 – 538 300 2069 – 1354 – 276 103444 414680 21143 193083 132386 89211 238308 6578 1211 246097 7059 6814 479 654 15006 1996 4501 6708 3900 3302 31300 7502 422 157010 530 1814 33873 155 19233 272246 30408 502 1103 1386 33399 76200 114500 58600 4328 355 571 600 2070 133 1354 150 391 259253 826001 29570 352095 225995 247911 28.9% 0.8% 0.1% 29.8% 0.9% 0.8% 0.1% 0.1% 1.8% 0.2% 0.5% 0.8% 0.5% 0.4% 3.8% 0.9% 0.1% 19.0% 0.1% 0.2% 4.1% ◆ 2.3% 33.0% 3.7% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 4.0% 9.2% 13.9% 7.1% 0.5% ◆ 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% ◆ ◆ ◆ 0.2% 31.4% 100.0% 3.6% 42.6% 27.4% 30.0% 224 97 106 216 * 93 74 * 172 70 75 35 58 351 273 52 12 481 32 21 438 9 268 218 121 287 * * 131 190 41 114 19 289 111 17 496 48 75 4 26 64 122 51 164 433 60 Source of reserves data: World Energy Council, 2009. than 0.05%. Notes: Proved reserves of coal – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known deposits under existing economic and operating conditions. Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of the year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that rate. Prices US dollars per tonne Northwest Europe marker price† US Central Appalachian coal spot price index‡ Japan coking coal import cif price Japan steam coal import cif price 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 43.48 42.80 38.53 33.68 37.18 44.50 41.25 38.92 32.00 28.79 35.99 39.29 31.65 42.52 71.90 61.07 63.67 86.60 149.78 31.59 29.01 28.53 29.85 31.72 27.01 29.86 29.76 31.00 31.29 29.90 49.74 32.95 38.48 64.33 70.14 62.98 51.12 116.14 60.54 60.45 57.82 55.26 51.77 54.47 56.68 55.51 50.76 42.83 39.69 41.33 42.01 41.57 60.96 89.33 93.46 88.24 179.03 50.81 50.30 48.45 45.71 43.66 47.58 49.54 45.53 40.51 35.74 34.58 37.96 36.90 34.74 51.34 62.91 63.04 69.86 122.81 †S ource: McCloskey Coal Information Service. ‡Price is for CAPP 12,500Btu, 1.2 SO 2 coal, fob. Source: Platts. Note: C APP = Central Appalachian; cif = cost+insurance+freight (average prices); fob = free on board. 32 Proved reserves at end 2008 Thousand million tonnes (anthracite and bituminous coal shown in brackets) 1.4 (1.4) Middle East 15.0 (7.0) S. & Cent. America 32.0 (31.8) Africa 246.1 (113.3) North America 259.3 (155.8) Asia Pacific 272.2 (102.0) Europe & Eurasia Production Million tonnes oil equivalent Consumption Million tonnes oil equivalent 2100 2100 1950 1800 1650 1500 1350 1200 1050 900 750 600 450 300 150 1998 2008 1950 1800 1650 1500 1350 1200 1050 900 750 600 450 300 150 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East & Africa Asia Pacific 0 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East & Africa Asia Pacific 0 World coal consumption grew by 3.1% in 2008, the first below-average increase since 2002. Coal nonetheless remained the fastest-growing primary energy source for the sixth consecutive year. China accounted for more than 85% of global growth even though Chinese consumption growth was below average. 33 Production* Million tonnes oil equivalent 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Change 2008 over 2008 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Brazil Colombia Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Bulgaria Czech Republic France Germany Greece Hungary Kazakhstan Poland Romania Russian Federation Spain Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Total Middle East South Africa Zimbabwe Other Africa Total Africa Australia China India Indonesia Japan New Zealand Pakistan South Korea Thailand Vietnam Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs ◆Less 603.2 40.8 4.8 648.8 2.0 21.9 4.7 0.8 29.5 5.0 26.0 3.6 61.3 8.1 3.0 36.0 79.6 5.7 103.9 9.3 13.9 39.9 25.0 16.7 437.0 0.6 127.1 3.5 1.4 132.0 149.8 628.7 126.5 38.3 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.0 6.1 6.4 15.7 978.9 2226.8 229.2 1036.0 180.8 1010.0 584.3 39.2 4.9 628.3 2.1 21.3 4.8 0.5 28.7 4.2 23.1 3.3 59.4 8.0 3.1 30.0 77.0 5.1 112.1 8.6 13.3 42.3 22.5 13.4 425.3 0.7 125.6 3.2 1.3 130.1 160.8 645.9 124.4 45.3 2.2 2.1 1.5 1.9 5.7 4.9 18.0 1012.8 2225.9 216.7 1015.2 185.5 1025.3 570.1 37.1 5.4 612.6 2.9 24.9 5.8 0.4 33.9 4.4 25.0 2.3 56.5 8.2 2.9 38.5 71.3 6.4 116.0 8.0 13.9 42.0 19.0 14.0 428.6 0.6 126.6 2.8 1.2 130.7 166.3 656.7 132.2 47.4 1.7 2.2 1.4 1.9 5.1 6.5 19.3 1040.8 2247.1 206.6 993.7 197.4 1056.0 590.3 37.6 5.3 633.2 2.1 28.5 5.6 0.5 36.8 4.4 25.4 1.5 54.1 8.5 2.9 40.7 71.7 7.1 122.6 7.6 14.2 43.5 19.4 14.4 438.2 0.5 126.1 2.9 1.2 130.2 179.9 697.6 133.6 56.5 1.8 2.4 1.5 1.7 5.6 7.5 19.7 1107.8 2346.7 205.1 1026.9 207.8 1112.1 570.1 34.9 5.3 610.2 1.9 25.7 5.9 0.4 33.9 4.4 24.3 1.1 55.0 9.1 2.7 37.8 71.3 6.6 117.3 7.2 11.5 42.8 18.2 15.3 424.6 0.4 124.1 2.5 1.3 128.0 184.5 733.7 138.5 63.6 0.8 2.7 1.6 1.5 5.7 9.2 19.3 1161.0 2358.1 202.5 1003.1 198.9 1156.1 553.6 32.2 4.6 590.4 1.8 32.5 5.1 0.5 39.9 4.6 24.2 1.3 54.1 9.5 2.8 43.3 71.4 7.0 127.1 6.8 10.5 41.7 17.2 15.8 437.2 0.6 134.1 1.8 1.6 137.5 190.1 868.4 144.4 70.3 0.7 3.2 1.5 1.5 5.3 10.8 20.0 1316.2 2521.8 201.2 986.9 212.8 1322.0 572.4 34.7 4.7 611.8 2.0 34.9 5.9 0.2 43.0 4.5 23.5 0.4 54.7 9.6 2.4 44.4 70.5 6.7 131.7 6.7 10.5 42.2 15.3 15.6 438.7 0.6 137.2 2.4 1.3 140.9 198.8 1012.1 155.7 81.4 0.7 3.2 1.5 1.4 5.6 14.7 21.7 1496.9 2732.0 196.3 1012.4 219.4 1500.2 580.2 35.6 5.2 620.9 2.4 38.4 5.3 0.3 46.3 4.1 23.5 0.2 53.2 9.4 2.0 44.2 68.7 6.6 139.2 6.4 12.8 40.9 12.5 14.7 438.4 0.6 137.7 1.9 1.2 140.7 206.5 1120.0 162.1 93.9 0.6 3.2 1.6 1.3 5.8 18.3 23.8 1637.1 2884.2 188.4 1022.8 225.5 1635.8 595.1 34.5 5.5 635.2 2.2 42.6 5.4 0.6 50.9 4.2 23.7 0.2 50.3 8.6 2.1 49.1 67.0 6.5 145.1 6.2 13.4 41.8 11.3 15.7 445.3 0.5 138.0 1.4 1.2 140.5 211.0 1205.1 170.2 119.2 0.7 3.5 1.7 1.3 5.3 21.8 24.1 1764.0 3036.3 181.8 1036.6 237.2 1762.5 587.7 36.9 6.0 630.6 2.3 45.4 5.9 0.5 54.0 4.7 23.4 0.2 51.5 9.0 2.0 50.0 62.3 6.7 148.2 6.0 15.8 39.9 10.3 16.7 447.0 0.5 139.6 1.4 1.1 142.1 218.5 1282.4 181.0 133.7 0.8 3.0 1.6 1.3 5.1 23.1 24.9 1875.4 3149.5 178.0 1038.1 239.2 1872.1 596.9 36.0 5.5 638.4 2.4 47.8 4.7 0.6 55.5 4.8 22.8 0.1 47.7 9.1 1.9 58.8 60.5 6.5 152.8 5.5 17.8 40.2 10.9 17.1 456.4 0.5 141.1 1.1 1.1 143.4 219.9 1414.5 194.3 141.1 0.7 3.1 1.9 1.3 5.1 23.6 25.3 2030.7 3324.9 171.5 1042.5 252.9 2029.6 1.3% -2.6% -8.6% 1.0% 7.6% 4.9% -20.2% 36.3% 2.5% 1.3% -3.0% -50.1% -7.7% 0.3% -4.5% 17.1% -3.3% -3.2% 2.8% -9.1% 12.6% 0.4% 5.0% 2.0% 1.8% -0.3% 0.8% -17.2% -0.3% 0.6% 0.3% 10.0% 7.0% 5.3% -14.0% 5.5% 14.8% -4.0% -1.3% 2.1% 1.6% 8.0% 5.3% -3.9% 0.1% 5.4% 8.1% 18.0% 1.1% 0.2% 19.2% 0.1% 1.4% 0.1% 1.7% 0.1% 0.7% ◆ ◆ 1.4% 0.3% 0.1% 1.8% 1.8% 0.2% 4.6% 0.2% 0.5% 1.2% 0.3% 0.5% 13.7% ◆ 4.2% ◆ ◆ 4.3% 6.6% 42.5% 5.8% 4.2% 0.1% 0.1% ◆ ◆ 0.2% 0.7% 0.8% 61.1% 100.0% 5.2% 31.4% 7.6% 61.0% *C ommercial solid fuels only, i.e. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), and lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal. than 0.05%. Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. Coal production data expressed in million tonnes is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview. 34 Consumption* Million tonnes oil equivalent 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Change 2008 over 2008 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium & Luxembourg Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Republic of Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt South Africa Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh China China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs 545.7 30.8 5.9 582.3 0.8 11.4 3.7 2.8 – 0.4 0.5 19.7 3.0 – 0.4 7.9 8.2 20.5 5.6 3.4 16.1 84.8 8.8 3.4 0.1 1.9 11.6 22.9 0.1 9.4 0.7 63.8 3.6 7.0 100.7 4.5 17.7 2.0 0.1 24.0 – 36.9 38.6 1.2 20.9 529.5 1.0 – – – – 5.8 6.8 0.5 0.8 83.4 7.0 91.6 45.8 0.1 651.9 4.4 136.1 9.3 88.4 1.6 1.1 2.1 2.7 – 36.1 23.6 7.3 21.3 1031.8 2261.7 323.5 1085.0 163.9 1012.8 † 544.9 30.5 6.0 581.4 0.9 11.9 3.9 2.4 – 0.5 0.1 0.6 20.1 3.2 – 0.1 6.9 6.6 19.0 4.7 3.6 14.3 80.2 9.1 3.4 0.1 1.6 11.6 19.8 0.1 7.7 0.7 61.0 3.6 6.7 101.0 4.3 20.5 2.0 0.1 22.6 – 38.5 34.3 0.9 16.4 504.5 1.0 – – – – 5.7 6.7 0.5 0.6 82.3 6.5 89.9 46.2 656.2 3.9 135.8 11.6 91.5 1.8 1.2 2.1 2.9 – 38.2 24.8 7.9 24.0 1048.0 2250.7 306.1 1072.8 161.3 1016.6 † 569.0 31.8 6.2 606.9 0.8 12.5 3.0 2.7 – 0.5 0.6 20.1 3.2 – 0.1 7.6 6.3 21.0 4.0 3.5 13.9 84.9 9.2 3.2 0.1 1.8 13.0 23.2 0.1 8.6 0.7 57.6 4.5 7.0 105.2 4.0 21.6 1.9 0.1 25.5 – 38.8 36.7 1.0 17.3 525.6 1.1 – – – – 6.2 7.3 0.5 0.6 81.9 6.4 89.4 46.5 0.3 667.4 3.7 144.2 13.7 98.9 1.9 1.1 2.0 4.3 – 43.0 28.7 7.8 25.5 1089.0 2338.4 315.3 1123.1 169.1 1046.2 † 552.2 34.0 6.8 593.0 0.6 12.2 2.3 2.7 – 0.4 0.7 19.0 2.9 0.1 7.6 6.9 21.2 4.2 4.0 12.1 85.0 9.3 3.4 0.1 1.9 13.7 22.5 0.1 8.5 0.6 58.0 3.7 7.2 102.4 4.1 19.5 2.0 0.1 21.8 – 39.4 38.9 1.1 16.5 518.7 1.1 – – – – 7.2 8.3 0.6 0.7 80.6 7.3 89.3 47.9 0.4 681.3 4.9 145.2 16.7 103.0 2.6 1.3 2.1 4.5 – 45.7 30.6 8.8 26.4 1121.5 2349.7 315.5 1113.7 166.1 1069.9 † † 552.0 31.6 7.6 591.1 0.5 11.5 2.4 2.5 – 0.4 1.0 18.3 3.0 0.1 6.7 6.5 20.6 4.2 4.4 12.4 84.6 9.8 3.1 0.1 1.8 14.2 22.8 0.1 8.9 0.5 56.7 4.1 7.6 103.0 4.0 21.9 2.2 0.1 21.2 – 38.3 35.7 1.0 18.7 518.6 1.1 – – – – 7.6 8.7 0.9 0.7 83.5 7.2 92.4 51.3 0.4 713.8 5.4 151.8 18.0 106.6 3.6 1.3 2.4 4.7 – 49.1 32.7 9.2 25.9 1176.1 2405.2 314.0 1119.8 166.0 1119.3 † † 562.5 33.4 8.6 604.5 0.7 11.8 2.3 2.4 – 0.4 2.1 19.6 2.9 0.1 6.5 7.1 20.8 5.7 5.8 13.3 87.2 9.4 3.4 0.1 1.7 15.3 25.2 0.2 9.1 0.5 57.7 3.8 7.8 104.0 4.2 20.5 2.2 0.1 21.8 – 39.0 38.1 1.0 19.6 533.9 1.1 – – – – 7.9 9.0 0.8 0.9 89.3 6.4 97.4 50.5 0.4 853.1 6.6 156.8 17.9 112.2 4.2 1.9 2.9 4.7 – 51.1 35.1 9.4 26.5 1333.2 2597.6 323.9 1150.2 170.3 1277.1 † † 566.1 29.9 7.0 603.0 0.8 12.8 2.6 2.0 – 0.5 – 1.9 20.5 2.9 0.1 6.4 6.9 20.5 4.6 5.3 12.8 85.4 9.0 3.1 0.1 1.8 17.1 26.5 0.2 9.1 0.6 57.3 3.7 7.4 99.5 4.1 21.0 2.3 0.1 23.0 – 39.1 36.6 1.2 20.1 527.8 1.0 – – – – 8.0 9.0 0.8 0.9 94.5 7.2 103.4 53.1 0.4 983.0 6.6 172.3 20.2 120.8 5.7 2.0 3.8 5.0 – 53.1 36.6 10.4 29.6 1502.5 2766.2 318.8 1158.8 167.6 1439.8 † 574.2 31.7 9.1 614.9 0.9 12.7 2.6 2.3 – 0.5 1.8 20.8 2.8 0.1 6.1 6.9 19.8 3.7 3.1 13.3 82.1 8.8 2.7 0.1 1.8 17.0 27.2 0.2 8.7 0.5 55.7 3.8 7.6 94.2 3.9 21.2 2.2 0.1 26.1 – 37.5 37.4 1.1 18.4 514.1 1.2 – – – – 7.9 9.1 0.6 1.0 91.9 7.3 100.8 54.9 0.4 1100.5 6.7 184.4 26.1 121.3 6.3 2.2 4.1 5.7 – 54.8 38.1 11.2 30.9 1647.6 2907.4 310.1 1169.1 161.1 1577.2 † † 565.7 31.0 9.4 606.1 0.3 12.5 3.2 2.4 – 0.4 0.1 2.1 20.9 2.8 0.1 6.1 7.1 19.4 5.6 5.2 12.1 83.5 8.1 2.9 0.1 1.6 17.2 28.1 0.2 8.5 0.4 58.0 3.8 8.5 96.7 3.8 18.5 2.3 0.1 28.8 – 39.8 40.8 1.1 15.5 526.6 1.3 – – – – 7.8 9.1 0.7 0.9 93.8 6.8 102.3 56.9 0.4 1215.0 7.0 195.4 24.2 119.1 7.3 2.2 4.2 5.5 – 54.8 39.6 12.4 33.2 1777.2 3042.3 317.3 1168.6 166.8 1706.9 † 573.2 32.3 9.1 614.6 0.4 13.4 3.3 2.7 – 0.5 0.1 2.2 22.5 3.1 0.1 5.5 7.8 20.0 4.7 4.6 12.3 85.7 8.5 2.9 0.1 1.5 17.2 30.8 0.2 9.0 0.4 57.9 3.3 7.4 93.5 3.8 20.2 2.2 0.1 31.0 – 39.7 38.2 1.4 15.7 528.9 1.3 – – – – 8.1 9.3 0.7 1.0 97.7 6.2 105.7 55.8 0.4 1313.6 7.5 212.9 28.4 125.3 7.1 1.6 5.1 5.9 – 59.7 41.8 14.1 34.2 1913.5 3194.5 317.4 1189.4 166.5 1838.6 † 565.0 33.0 9.0 606.9 0.4 14.6 3.2 2.3 – 0.5 2.2 23.3 3.1 4.6 7.5 19.1 4.1 3.4 11.9 80.9 8.6 2.8 0.1 1.4 17.0 33.6 0.2 9.2 0.5 59.4 3.2 7.7 101.3 3.9 14.6 2.0 0.1 30.4 – 39.3 35.4 1.4 16.1 522.7 1.3 – – – – 8.1 9.4 0.7 1.0 102.8 5.7 110.3 51.3 0.4 1406.3 7.0 231.4 30.2 128.7 5.0 2.1 6.7 6.2 – 66.1 40.2 15.4 34.6 2031.2 3303.7 301.2 1170.6 176.9 1956.3 † † † -1.7% 2.0% -2.1% -1.5% -0.3% 9.1% -3.2% -14.9% – -0.3% -15.8% 1.7% 3.3% 2.6% 19.7% -36.7% -16.1% -4.4% -5.1% -13.0% -26.3% -3.2% -5.9% 0.3% -3.7% -8.3% -8.0% -1.7% 8.5% -2.6% 2.1% 0.7% 2.2% -4.9% 4.4% 8.1% 2.0% -28.1% -10.7% -0.3% -2.3% – -1.1% -7.6% 2.0% 2.2% -1.4% 2.1% – – – – -0.3% ◆ 17.1% 1.0% 0.3% 18.4% ◆ 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% – ◆ ◆ 0.1% 0.7% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 2.4% 0.3% 0.1% ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ 0.5% 1.0% 0.3% ◆ ◆ 1.8% 0.1% 0.2% 3.1% 0.1% 0.4% 0.1% ◆ 0.9% – 1.2% 1.1% ◆ 0.5% 15.8% ◆ – – – – 0.2% 0.3% ◆ ◆ -0.4% -1.3% 4.9% -8.3% 4.0% -8.3% -0.3% 6.8% -7.7% 8.4% 5.9% 2.4% -29.6% 26.8% 30.3% 4.3% – 10.4% -4.2% 8.4% 0.7% 5.9% 3.1% -5.4% -1.9% 6.0% 6.1% 3.1% 0.2% 3.3% 1.6% ◆ 42.6% 0.2% 7.0% 0.9% 3.9% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% – 2.0% 1.2% 0.5% 1.0% 61.5% 100.0% 9.1% 35.4% 5.4% 59.2% *Commercial solid fuels only, i.e. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), and lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal. †Less than 0.05. ◆Less than 0.05%. Note: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. 35 Nuclear energy Consumption* Million tonnes oil equivalent 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium & Luxembourg Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Republic of Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt South Africa Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh China China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs 160.5 16.2 2.1 178.7 1.7 0.7 – – – – – – 2.4 – – – 10.4 3.8 3.0 – 5.0 87.8 36.6 – 3.2 – – – † 3.1 0.9 – – – 1.2 23.6 2.6 13.4 15.9 5.8 – – 17.0 22.5 – 1.5 257.3 – – – – – – – – – 3.2 – 3.2 – – 3.2 – 2.6 – 74.0 – – 0.1 – – 20.3 8.3 – – 108.5 550.2 210.5 480.2 44.0 26.0 173.5 16.6 2.3 192.4 1.6 0.9 – – – – – – 2.5 – – – 11.1 3.6 3.0 – 5.3 89.2 38.5 – 3.2 – – – – 2.2 0.9 – – – 1.2 27.1 3.0 13.3 16.6 5.6 – – 16.3 21.5 – 1.5 263.1 – – – – – – – – 3.1 – 3.1 – – 3.4 – 2.9 – 71.9 – – † – – 23.3 8.7 – – 110.2 571.2 213.6 498.7 46.2 26.4 179.6 16.5 1.9 197.9 1.4 1.4 – – – – – – 2.8 – – – 10.9 4.1 3.1 – 5.1 94.0 38.4 – 3.2 – – – – 1.9 0.9 – – – 1.2 29.5 3.7 14.1 13.0 6.0 – – 17.5 19.3 – 1.5 267.4 – – – – – – – – – 3.1 – 3.1 – – 3.8 – 3.6 – 72.3 – – 0.2 – – 24.7 8.7 – – 113.3 584.5 213.9 506.5 49.4 28.6 183.1 17.4 2.0 202.5 1.6 3.2 – – – – – – 4.8 – – – 10.5 4.4 3.3 – 5.2 95.3 38.8 – 3.2 – – – – 2.6 0.9 – – – 1.2 31.0 3.9 14.4 16.3 6.0 – – 17.2 20.4 – 1.6 276.3 – – – – – – – – – 2.6 – 2.6 – – 4.0 – 4.3 – 72.7 – – 0.5 – – 25.4 8.0 – – 114.8 600.9 221.6 518.7 51.2 31.0 185.8 17.1 2.2 205.1 1.3 3.1 – – – – – – 4.4 – – – 10.7 4.6 4.2 – 5.4 98.8 37.3 – 3.2 – – – – 3.2 0.9 – – – 1.2 32.1 4.1 14.3 15.4 6.1 – – 17.7 19.9 – 1.8 280.8 – – – – – – – – – 2.9 – 2.9 – – 5.7 – 4.4 – 71.3 – – 0.4 – – 27.0 8.9 – – 117.7 610.9 224.5 523.6 53.4 33.9 181.9 16.9 2.4 201.2 1.7 3.0 – – – – – – 4.7 – – – 10.7 4.5 5.9 – 5.5 99.8 37.4 – 2.5 – – – – 3.5 0.9 – – – 1.1 33.6 4.0 14.0 15.3 6.2 – – 18.4 20.1 – 1.6 285.0 – – – – – – – – – 3.0 – 3.0 – – 9.8 – 4.1 – 52.1 – – 0.4 – – 29.3 8.8 – – 104.6 598.7 226.3 504.9 56.0 37.7 187.8 20.5 2.1 210.3 1.8 2.6 – – – – – – 4.4 – – – 10.7 4.4 6.0 – 5.5 101.7 37.8 – 2.7 – – – – 3.4 0.9 – – – 1.3 32.7 3.9 14.4 17.3 6.1 – – 19.7 18.1 – 1.8 288.2 – – – – – – – – – 3.4 – 3.4 – – 11.4 – 3.8 – 64.7 – – 0.5 – – 29.6 8.9 – – 119.0 625.4 229.2 529.6 56.4 39.4 186.3 20.8 2.4 209.5 1.6 2.2 – – – – – – 3.8 – – – 10.8 4.2 5.6 – 5.5 102.4 36.9 – 3.1 – – – – 2.3 0.9 – – – 1.3 33.4 4.0 13.0 16.4 5.2 – – 20.1 18.5 – 1.9 285.5 – – – – – – – – – 2.9 – 2.9 – – 12.0 – 4.0 – 66.3 – – 0.6 – – 33.2 9.0 – – 125.2 626.9 226.1 531.3 56.4 39.1 187.5 22.0 2.5 212.0 1.7 3.1 – – – – – – 4.8 – – – 10.5 4.4 5.9 – 5.4 102.1 37.9 – 3.0 – – – – 2.0 0.8 – – – 1.3 35.4 4.1 13.6 15.2 6.3 – – 20.4 17.1 – 1.9 287.2 – – – – – – – – – 2.4 – 2.4 – – 12.4 – 4.0 – 68.9 – – 0.6 – – 33.7 9.0 – – 128.6 634.9 224.5 536.3 58.4 40.2 192.1 21.0 2.4 215.4 1.6 2.8 – – – – – – 4.4 – – – 10.9 3.3 5.9 – 5.6 99.7 31.8 – 3.3 – – – – 2.2 1.0 – – – 1.7 36.5 3.5 12.5 15.2 6.3 – – 20.9 14.3 – 1.9 276.4 – – – – – – – – – 3.0 – 3.0 – – 14.1 – 4.0 – 63.1 – – 0.6 – – 32.3 9.2 – – 123.3 622.5 212.1 520.7 60.3 41.6 192.0 21.1 2.3 215.4 1.6 3.1 – – – – – – 4.8 – – – 10.4 3.6 6.0 – 5.4 99.6 33.7 – 3.4 – – – – 2.2 0.9 – – – 2.5 36.9 3.8 13.3 14.5 6.2 – – 20.3 11.9 – 2.0 276.7 – – – – – – – – – 3.0 – 3.0 – – 15.5 – 3.5 – 57.0 – – 0.4 – – 34.2 9.2 – – 119.8 619.7 212.7 515.7 60.0 44.0 -0.3% 0.2% -2.5% -0.3% 1.4% 12.2% – – – – – – 8.3% – – – -5.4% 7.4% 1.2% – -2.9% -0.3% 5.6% – 0.7% – – – – 0.3% -1.0% – – – 45.2% 0.7% 8.6% 6.9% -4.3% -1.1% – – -3.2% -17.0% – 5.6% –0.2% – – – – – – – – – 0.6% – 0.6% – – 9.8% – -13.2% – -10.0% – – -25.4% – – 5.3% 0.4% – – -3.1% -0.7% ◆ -1.2% -0.7% 5.5% 31.0% 3.4% 0.4% 34.8% 0.3% 0.5% – – – – – – 0.8% – – – 1.7% 0.6% 1.0% – 0.9% 16.1% 5.4% – 0.5% – – – – 0.4% 0.2% – – – 0.4% 6.0% 0.6% 2.2% 2.3% 1.0% – – 3.3% 1.9% – 0.3% 44.7% – – – – – – – – – 0.5% – 0.5% – – 2.5% – 0.6% – 9.2% – – 0.1% – – 5.5% 1.5% – – 19.3% 100.0% 34.3% 83.2% 9.7% 7.1% *Based on gross generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern thermal power station. †Less than 0.05. ◆Less than 0.05%. Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. Nuclear energy data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview. 36 Consumption by region Million tonnes oil equivalent Rest of World Asia Pacific Europe & Eurasia North America 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 Global nuclear power generation declined for a second consecutive year. Maintenance-related declines in Japan and the United Kingdom were only partly offset by growth in China and a recovery in utilization in Germany and South Korea. 37 Hydroelectricity Consumption* Million tonnes oil equivalent 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 ◆ 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium & Luxembourg Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Republic of Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt South Africa Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh China China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs 73.9 75.1 5.6 154.6 6.0 66.0 3.6 6.9 1.5 3.1 13.1 17.3 117.5 8.4 0.4 † 0.1 0.8 0.4 † 3.3 14.1 3.9 0.9 † 1.3 0.2 9.3 1.4 0.2 † 26.3 1.0 3.0 4.3 35.9 1.0 8.4 16.7 7.6 9.6 – 3.6 1.2 1.3 15.6 180.1 1.7 – – – – 0.9 2.6 † 3.1 0.4 12.2 15.7 3.6 0.2 47.1 – 18.9 2.2 21.3 1.1 5.7 5.5 1.1 – 1.0 1.3 1.2 7.0 117.1 587.6 78.9 302.8 51.1 233.7 73.0 77.8 7.4 158.3 4.9 66.3 3.1 7.6 1.6 3.3 13.7 17.7 118.2 9.2 0.3 † 0.1 0.7 0.5 † 2.9 16.6 4.4 1.1 † 1.4 0.2 10.3 1.4 0.2 † 27.6 1.0 1.7 4.1 36.4 1.1 6.4 16.2 9.1 7.8 – 3.3 1.2 1.3 16.8 183.2 1.2 – – – – 0.9 2.0 † 3.4 0.2 13.7 17.3 3.6 0.2 46.1 – 18.6 2.1 18.9 1.7 5.2 4.9 1.8 – 0.9 1.1 0.8 7.8 113.6 592.7 79.3 305.6 51.5 235.6 63.0 81.1 7.5 151.6 6.5 68.9 4.3 6.9 1.7 3.7 14.2 18.5 124.8 9.5 0.3 † 0.1 0.6 0.5 † 3.3 15.3 4.9 0.9 † 1.4 0.2 10.0 1.7 0.1 † 32.2 0.9 2.7 3.3 37.4 1.1 7.7 17.8 8.3 7.0 – 2.6 1.2 1.3 15.9 188.6 0.9 – – – – 1.0 1.8 † 3.2 0.3 13.4 17.0 3.6 0.2 50.3 – 17.4 2.3 18.5 1.7 5.5 4.0 1.8 – 0.9 1.0 1.4 8.2 116.7 600.5 81.9 305.3 52.1 243.1 49.6 75.5 6.4 131.5 8.4 60.6 4.9 7.1 1.6 4.0 13.7 17.0 117.3 9.5 0.3 † 0.1 0.4 0.6 † 3.1 17.0 5.3 0.6 † 1.5 0.1 10.6 1.8 0.2 † 27.4 1.0 3.3 3.4 39.8 1.2 9.3 17.9 9.4 5.4 – 2.8 0.9 1.2 15.4 189.4 0.9 – – – – 1.0 1.9 † 3.3 0.5 14.1 17.8 3.6 0.2 62.8 – 16.3 2.6 18.6 1.5 4.9 4.1 1.6 – 0.5 1.1 1.4 9.1 128.4 586.3 85.9 283.2 54.2 248.9 60.4 79.4 5.6 145.4 8.1 64.7 5.2 7.6 1.7 4.1 13.5 17.9 122.9 9.0 0.5 † 0.1 0.6 0.6 † 2.4 13.9 5.4 0.8 † 1.6 0.2 8.9 2.0 0.2 † 29.4 0.9 1.9 3.6 37.2 1.2 5.2 15.0 8.0 7.6 – 2.2 1.1 1.6 15.1 176.3 1.8 – – – – 1.1 2.9 † 3.2 0.5 15.2 18.9 3.6 0.2 65.2 – 15.5 2.3 18.9 1.2 5.6 4.6 1.6 – 0.7 0.6 1.7 8.9 130.7 597.2 72.6 287.6 52.0 257.6 63.0 76.4 4.5 143.9 7.7 69.2 5.2 8.1 1.6 4.2 13.7 18.3 127.9 8.1 0.6 † 0.1 0.7 0.4 † 2.1 13.5 4.3 1.2 † 1.6 0.1 8.3 2.0 0.2 † 24.0 0.7 3.6 3.0 35.6 0.8 9.3 12.1 7.9 8.0 – 2.1 0.7 1.7 16.0 168.9 2.2 – – – – 1.0 3.2 0.1 2.9 0.2 15.5 18.7 3.7 0.3 64.2 – 15.7 2.1 21.1 1.3 5.3 5.8 1.8 – 1.1 0.7 1.7 9.5 134.2 596.8 70.7 282.2 51.2 263.4 61.3 77.2 5.6 144.2 6.9 72.6 4.9 9.0 1.7 4.0 15.9 17.9 132.8 7.7 0.6 † 0.1 0.7 0.6 † 3.4 13.5 4.7 1.2 † 1.6 0.1 9.6 1.8 0.2 † 24.7 0.8 2.3 3.7 40.8 1.0 7.2 12.7 7.6 10.4 – 2.7 1.1 1.6 17.2 179.7 2.7 – – – – 1.3 4.0 0.1 2.9 0.2 16.7 19.8 3.6 0.3 80.0 – 19.0 2.2 21.1 1.3 6.1 5.5 1.9 – 1.0 0.7 1.4 9.3 153.2 633.7 72.3 286.2 56.9 290.6 61.8 82.0 6.2 150.0 7.9 76.4 6.0 9.0 1.6 4.1 17.6 18.5 140.9 7.7 0.7 † 0.1 1.1 0.7 † 3.1 11.8 4.6 1.3 † 1.6 0.1 8.2 1.8 0.2 † 30.9 0.9 1.2 4.6 39.6 1.1 4.0 16.5 7.1 9.0 – 2.8 1.1 1.4 17.4 180.2 3.0 – – – – 1.1 4.1 0.1 2.9 0.2 17.2 20.4 3.6 0.3 89.8 – 22.0 2.4 17.3 1.2 5.3 6.9 1.9 – 0.8 0.9 1.3 8.9 162.6 658.2 69.6 287.7 55.9 314.6 66.1 79.9 6.8 152.8 9.8 78.9 6.6 9.7 1.6 4.4 18.5 18.5 148.0 7.3 0.6 † 0.1 1.0 0.7 † 2.6 12.7 4.4 1.5 † 1.7 0.2 8.4 1.8 0.2 † 27.1 0.7 2.7 4.2 39.6 1.0 5.8 14.0 7.0 10.0 – 2.9 1.0 1.4 16.6 177.2 4.2 – – – – 1.2 5.4 † 2.9 0.3 17.7 20.9 3.6 0.3 98.6 – 25.4 2.2 19.6 1.6 5.3 6.8 2.2 – 0.8 0.9 1.8 10.2 179.5 683.8 69.9 291.0 55.6 337.1 56.6 82.9 6.1 145.6 8.5 84.6 5.2 9.5 2.0 4.4 18.8 19.5 152.6 7.5 0.5 † 0.1 0.7 0.6 † 3.2 13.3 4.7 0.8 † 1.9 0.2 7.3 1.8 0.2 † 30.6 0.7 2.3 3.6 40.4 1.0 6.0 15.0 7.9 8.0 – 2.3 1.2 1.4 16.3 179.6 4.1 – – – – 1.2 5.2 0.1 3.5 0.6 18.0 22.1 3.3 0.3 109.8 – 27.7 2.6 16.8 1.5 5.3 7.1 1.9 – 0.7 1.0 1.8 10.8 190.7 695.8 69.7 283.9 56.3 355.5 56.7 83.6 8.6 148.9 8.4 82.3 5.4 9.8 2.6 4.5 19.6 19.9 152.5 7.9 0.5 † 0.1 0.8 0.5 † 3.9 14.3 4.4 0.8 † 2.8 0.2 8.8 1.7 0.2 † 31.8 0.6 1.6 3.9 37.8 1.0 3.8 14.8 8.1 7.5 – 2.6 1.1 1.4 17.0 180.2 1.7 – – – – 1.2 2.8 0.1 3.9 0.2 18.1 22.2 3.4 0.3 132.4 – 26.2 2.7 15.7 1.5 5.0 6.3 2.2 – 0.9 0.9 1.6 11.6 210.8 717.5 70.6 288.3 54.0 375.3 0.6% 41.5% 2.0% -1.4% -3.0% 3.5% 3.8% 24.6% 0.8% 4.1% 1.6% -0.3% 5.4% -1.8% -0.3% 20.9% 2.4% -6.4% -7.4% 20.4% 8.0% -5.6% 3.3% -0.7% 47.6% 45.2% 21.5% -5.3% 3.0% -4.9% 3.6% -3.8% -31.6% 6.7% -6.7% -5.6% -37.8% -1.2% 3.2% -7.3% – 11.9% -1.6% -3.9% 3.8% 0.1% -58.5% – – – – -0.4% -45.6% 24.9% 10.9% -69.3% 0.2% 0.2% 3.1% 1.7% 20.3% – -5.8% 6.0% -6.9% 1.2% -5.9% -11.5% 14.2% – 15.6% -2.8% -15.5% 7.6% 10.2% 2.8% 1.0% 1.2% -4.4% 5.3% 7.9% 11.7% 1.2% 20.8% 1.2% 11.5% 0.8% 1.4% 0.4% 0.6% 2.7% 2.8% 21.3% 1.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.5% 2.0% 0.6% 0.1% 0.4% 1.2% 0.2% ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ 4.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 5.3% 0.1% 0.5% 2.1% 1.1% 1.0% – 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 2.4% 25.1% 0.2% – – – – 0.2% 0.4% ◆ 0.5% ◆ 2.5% 3.1% 0.5% ◆ 18.5% – 3.6% 0.4% 2.2% 0.2% 0.7% 0.9% 0.3% – 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 1.6% 29.4% 100.0% 9.8% 40.2% 7.5% 52.3% thermal power station. †Less than 0.05. ◆Less than 0.05%. Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. Hydroelectricity data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview. *Based on gross primary hydroelectric generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern 38 Consumption by region Million tonnes oil equivalent Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North America 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 Global hydroelectric output increased by an above-average 2.8% in 2008. China accounted for all the world’s net increase, with output rising by 20.3% on strong capacity growth and increased rainfall. 39 Primary energy Consumption* Million tonnes oil equivalent 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Change 2008 over 2007 2008 share of total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium & Luxembourg Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Republic of Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt South Africa Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh China China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs 2219.2 283.9 131.9 2635.0 58.1 173.8 22.0 27.3 8.4 11.3 63.8 83.1 447.8 31.2 10.9 22.1 62.5 20.7 39.9 20.6 25.6 246.3 333.6 28.7 23.8 2.2 12.2 167.1 39.2 9.2 85.3 40.4 94.1 22.7 41.3 602.3 17.6 117.7 51.6 28.9 72.4 12.3 131.8 222.0 50.6 73.2 2759.9 106.8 17.7 14.7 103.5 41.7 89.4 373.9 27.5 43.5 108.2 87.6 266.9 104.2 11.0 917.4 16.0 272.1 81.5 496.9 37.2 16.9 41.2 22.9 34.7 165.1 77.9 57.2 52.9 2405.0 8888.5 1689.2 5164.3 902.4 2821.8 2257.6 290.8 131.7 2680.0 57.5 178.5 22.9 25.2 7.9 11.7 59.8 85.2 448.7 32.1 11.0 21.0 63.7 18.0 38.5 19.8 25.7 250.5 327.7 30.2 23.7 2.3 13.1 172.2 35.1 7.8 83.8 41.5 91.1 23.3 36.9 608.3 17.5 122.1 51.6 29.8 71.0 13.4 134.6 220.6 52.1 66.9 2757.1 113.5 18.1 13.9 105.0 42.0 91.6 384.2 27.9 46.6 107.3 92.0 273.7 106.0 11.0 934.7 16.2 280.1 89.3 502.0 38.1 17.2 43.4 22.7 32.9 180.0 87.4 59.4 57.3 2477.7 9021.5 1685.1 5237.2 905.0 2879.3 2309.5 300.9 137.4 2747.8 58.9 182.9 23.9 25.4 7.8 11.9 61.9 86.8 459.5 31.8 11.4 21.2 65.9 17.8 40.0 18.8 26.0 253.9 329.5 31.9 23.0 2.4 13.7 174.9 40.8 7.0 86.2 45.9 88.4 24.8 37.0 625.1 18.1 128.7 48.6 29.1 76.6 14.5 134.7 222.9 50.2 66.2 2806.9 121.1 19.0 10.2 112.9 41.1 95.3 399.5 26.9 49.0 107.9 92.4 276.1 106.2 12.7 967.3 16.1 295.1 93.5 510.2 45.5 17.8 44.3 22.6 35.0 190.7 93.6 60.6 61.4 2572.8 9262.6 1703.9 5353.9 925.7 2983.0 2254.9 296.7 136.8 2688.4 57.7 179.7 24.4 26.3 7.8 11.7 65.2 89.5 462.3 32.9 11.1 21.5 63.6 18.4 41.5 18.6 26.4 257.4 335.2 31.9 24.1 2.5 14.6 175.6 42.0 8.1 89.1 41.0 88.6 25.0 37.3 620.9 18.6 132.4 52.1 31.1 71.5 14.9 134.0 225.4 53.4 67.3 2827.9 127.7 20.0 11.5 117.7 48.7 98.8 424.4 27.9 52.1 106.7 94.9 281.5 109.4 14.1 1000.6 19.4 296.5 98.8 508.7 47.5 17.8 45.5 22.7 40.6 195.5 93.8 63.2 64.6 2638.7 9323.1 1731.9 5318.8 927.0 3077.3 2289.2 301.4 138.1 2728.7 54.3 183.6 24.7 25.7 7.8 11.8 66.1 91.7 465.7 32.8 10.9 21.7 64.4 18.6 41.5 18.4 26.7 255.5 329.1 32.8 23.4 2.6 14.4 174.2 43.8 8.6 89.5 42.9 87.1 25.0 38.6 635.3 18.7 133.9 48.5 29.1 75.1 15.4 132.2 220.3 54.7 69.7 2835.3 141.4 19.9 12.4 121.6 48.6 100.3 444.2 28.9 53.0 110.5 96.7 289.1 113.0 14.8 1058.3 20.8 307.8 104.0 505.7 50.9 18.4 47.4 23.4 40.0 204.6 97.2 68.2 65.3 2739.8 9502.8 1717.2 5356.3 943.5 3203.0 2296.7 2341.9 2342.7 2323.1 2359.6 2299.0 310.5 313.7 323.1 319.8 326.1 329.8 144.7 147.9 153.4 160.3 163.7 170.4 2751.9 2803.6 2819.2 2803.2 2849.4 2799.1 58.7 61.9 66.4 70.0 73.2 74.7 186.0 193.2 198.8 205.9 220.4 228.1 25.1 26.4 27.8 29.0 28.8 27.8 26.0 26.8 27.6 29.2 29.5 30.2 8.0 8.3 9.4 10.5 11.4 12.3 11.6 12.4 13.0 13.2 14.4 15.9 58.5 65.6 68.3 74.3 77.8 81.4 96.2 96.2 100.3 106.3 108.0 109.3 470.0 490.9 511.6 538.4 563.5 579.6 33.6 32.9 33.6 32.7 31.9 33.0 11.8 12.7 13.8 13.6 12.2 12.3 21.5 23.7 23.7 25.1 24.6 25.1 68.1 70.5 71.7 73.1 72.7 71.7 20.0 19.3 19.9 20.6 20.0 20.1 43.6 44.7 44.6 44.2 43.8 43.3 19.6 18.3 17.4 19.5 18.1 17.2 28.9 28.6 26.2 27.5 27.5 26.8 258.7 262.2 261.8 259.5 254.8 257.9 330.9 329.1 323.6 327.8 309.3 311.1 32.5 34.1 33.8 34.6 34.6 34.6 24.1 24.0 25.5 25.2 24.8 24.7 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 3.0 3.9 14.0 14.5 14.8 15.1 15.4 15.1 179.8 182.8 183.0 181.9 178.5 176.6 47.6 50.8 55.9 59.1 61.8 64.7 9.1 9.2 8.4 8.1 8.7 8.7 90.2 92.9 94.5 92.5 89.3 91.4 38.3 39.0 45.1 41.5 45.1 46.0 88.5 90.9 90.7 94.4 95.1 97.4 25.3 24.8 24.8 24.5 23.9 22.6 37.8 39.0 39.8 40.6 37.5 37.8 639.7 647.2 642.8 676.1 679.7 684.6 18.1 17.6 18.7 18.3 17.6 18.1 140.5 144.9 146.2 146.3 149.2 143.9 46.2 48.3 50.8 47.7 48.0 46.7 28.9 28.5 27.5 28.6 28.2 29.4 79.7 84.3 89.5 95.7 101.1 102.6 17.0 17.7 18.9 21.8 24.5 22.6 132.2 139.3 138.1 136.7 134.7 131.5 223.8 225.2 225.2 222.4 214.7 211.6 51.1 48.3 46.4 45.4 49.5 52.2 73.8 77.6 78.2 75.6 77.0 79.7 2877.2 2925.9 2937.7 2978.7 2956.9 2964.6 148.9 155.3 175.9 184.1 188.4 192.1 22.1 24.4 26.2 24.8 24.5 26.8 13.1 15.8 19.5 20.9 21.7 22.5 129.6 138.6 147.1 153.6 163.1 174.5 50.4 53.5 56.1 58.5 65.0 75.2 99.3 105.0 108.4 113.2 114.9 122.5 463.4 492.6 533.2 555.1 577.6 613.5 30.2 31.3 32.7 33.7 35.6 37.6 56.5 59.1 62.1 65.4 69.6 74.3 116.7 122.9 119.7 121.7 127.1 132.3 98.8 104.9 109.0 106.7 108.7 111.8 302.3 318.2 323.5 327.5 341.0 356.0 112.6 116.0 118.0 123.5 123.2 118.3 15.7 16.6 18.3 18.9 19.8 20.9 1229.3 1429.0 1572.2 1722.6 1862.8 2002.5 21.2 24.4 22.9 24.5 25.5 23.8 316.2 343.9 362.2 378.8 409.2 433.3 105.6 110.3 118.5 113.8 117.9 124.4 506.2 517.0 519.7 520.4 515.8 507.5 51.6 51.5 55.3 56.1 56.4 56.0 18.0 18.5 17.8 18.1 17.8 17.9 52.4 56.8 58.9 61.8 64.8 66.5 24.4 25.0 25.4 23.6 24.9 25.0 38.8 44.0 46.7 51.8 55.1 58.2 211.4 217.0 224.6 226.8 235.7 240.1 103.0 106.7 108.6 111.2 115.1 112.0 72.1 77.7 82.2 83.4 86.0 87.3 67.2 73.4 78.6 82.6 86.1 88.4 2945.8 3227.6 3430.0 3617.9 3816.0 3981.9 9810.5 10258.8 10555.3 10820.8 11104.4 11294.9 1748.6 1770.1 1771.8 1773.4 1732.2 1728.2 5415.7 5513.0 5551.2 5548.0 5568.3 5508.4 953.0 973.4 973.8 1011.7 1022.8 1028.9 3441.8 3772.3 4030.3 4261.1 4513.3 4757.5 -2.8% 0.9% 3.8% -2.0% 1.7% 3.2% -3.8% 2.1% 7.8% 10.0% 4.2% 0.9% 2.6% 3.0% -0.2% 1.5% -1.6% 0.1% -1.4% -5.3% -3.0% 0.9% 0.3% -0.4% -0.4% 26.2% -1.8% -1.3% 4.3% -0.8% 2.1% 1.7% 2.2% -5.5% 0.4% 0.4% 2.9% -3.8% -2.8% 3.7% 1.2% -8.1% -2.7% -1.7% 5.0% 3.2% ◆ 20.4% 2.9% 1.5% 24.8% 0.7% 2.0% 0.2% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.7% 1.0% 5.1% 0.3% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 0.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 2.3% 2.8% 0.3% 0.2% ◆ 1.7% 8.9% 3.3% 6.7% 15.3% 6.3% 5.9% 5.6% 6.5% 3.8% 2.5% 4.1% -4.2% 4.9% 7.2% -7.0% 5.6% 5.2% -1.9% -1.0% -0.1% 2.2% ◆ 5.3% 1.6% -2.9% 1.3% 2.4% 4.1% 1.4% -0.5% -1.3% 0.3% 5.1% 0.1% 1.6% 0.6% 0.1% 0.8% 0.4% 0.9% 0.2% 0.3% 6.1% 0.2% 1.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.9% 0.2% 1.2% 1.9% 0.5% 0.7% 26.2% 1.7% 0.2% 0.2% 1.5% 0.7% 1.1% 5.4% 0.3% 0.7% 1.2% 1.0% 3.2% 1.0% 0.2% 17.7% 0.2% 3.8% 1.1% 4.5% 0.5% 0.2% 0.6% 0.2% 0.5% 2.1% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8% 35.3% 100.0% 15.3% 48.8% 9.1% 42.1% *In this Review, primary energy comprises commercially traded fuels only. Excluded, therefore, are fuels such as wood, peat and animal waste that, though important in many countries, are ◆Less unreliably documented in terms of consumption statistics. Also excluded are wind, geothermal and solar power generation. than 0.05%. Notes: Oil consumption is measured in million tonnes; other fuels in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Growth rates are adjusted for leap years. 40 Consumption by fuel* 2007 Million tonnes oil equivalent Oil Natural gas Coal Nuclear Hydroenergy electricity Total Oil Natural gas 2008 Coal Nuclear Hydroenergy electricity Total US Canada Mexico Total North America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. America Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium & Luxembourg Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Republic of Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Other Europe & Eurasia Total Europe & Eurasia Iran Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Algeria Egypt South Africa Other Africa Total Africa Australia Bangladesh China China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Asia Pacific Total Asia Pacific Total World of which: European Union OECD Former Soviet Union Other EMEs 942.3 102.8 89.4 1134.5 23.2 99.8 16.1 10.7 8.9 7.1 30.0 64.2 260.0 13.4 4.5 7.6 41.0 5.3 9.7 9.3 10.6 91.3 112.5 21.7 7.7 1.0 9.4 84.0 11.6 2.8 46.0 10.2 24.2 14.4 10.3 126.2 4.1 78.8 14.7 11.3 30.5 5.4 15.3 79.2 5.4 27.9 947.6 81.3 13.6 4.0 96.1 20.7 74.4 290.1 12.9 30.6 25.8 60.7 129.9 41.7 4.5 362.8 16.0 128.5 56.4 229.3 22.0 7.2 19.2 14.0 47.4 108.3 52.5 38.2 29.4 1177.4 3939.4 700.2 2246.1 186.2 1507.1 595.4 87.0 56.8 739.3 39.5 19.8 4.1 6.7 0.5 2.4 29.0 22.1 124.1 8.0 7.2 16.9 15.2 2.9 7.6 4.1 3.5 38.3 74.6 3.6 10.8 – 4.3 70.0 17.6 3.3 33.3 3.8 12.3 3.8 14.5 383.1 5.1 31.6 0.9 2.6 31.6 19.1 56.4 81.8 41.3 15.1 1024.5 101.7 10.9 17.7 67.0 44.4 31.3 273.0 21.9 34.5 – 23.9 80.3 22.4 14.6 62.6 2.0 36.0 30.6 81.2 25.7 3.7 32.8 3.1 7.7 34.7 10.6 31.8 11.7 411.2 2652.2 432.8 1328.1 553.6 770.5 573.2 32.3 9.1 614.6 0.4 13.4 3.3 2.7 – 0.5 0.1 2.2 22.5 3.1 † 0.1 5.5 7.8 20.0 4.7 4.6 12.3 85.7 8.5 2.9 0.1 1.5 17.2 30.8 0.2 9.0 0.4 57.9 3.3 7.4 93.5 3.8 20.2 2.2 0.1 31.0 – 39.7 38.2 1.4 15.7 528.9 1.3 – – – – 8.1 9.3 0.7 1.0 97.7 6.2 105.7 55.8 0.4 1313.6 7.5 212.9 28.4 125.3 7.1 1.6 5.1 5.9 – 59.7 41.8 14.1 34.2 1913.5 3194.5 317.4 1189.4 166.5 1838.6 192.1 21.0 2.4 215.4 1.6 2.8 – – – – – – 4.4 – – – 10.9 3.3 5.9 – 5.6 99.7 31.8 – 3.3 – – – – 2.2 1.0 – – – 1.7 36.5 3.5 12.5 15.2 6.3 – – 20.9 14.3 – 1.9 276.4 – – – – – – – – – 3.0 – 3.0 – – 14.1 – 4.0 – 63.1 – – 0.6 – – 32.3 9.2 – – 123.3 622.5 212.1 520.7 60.3 41.6 56.6 2359.6 82.9 326.1 6.1 163.7 145.6 2849.4 8.5 73.2 84.6 220.4 5.2 28.8 9.5 29.5 2.0 11.4 4.4 14.4 18.8 77.8 19.5 108.0 152.6 563.5 7.5 31.9 0.5 12.2 † 24.6 0.1 72.7 0.7 20.0 0.6 43.8 † 18.1 3.2 27.5 13.3 254.8 4.7 309.3 0.8 34.6 † 24.8 1.9 3.0 0.2 15.4 7.3 178.5 1.8 61.8 0.2 8.7 † 89.3 30.6 45.1 0.7 95.1 2.3 23.9 3.6 37.5 40.4 679.7 1.0 17.6 6.0 149.2 15.0 48.0 7.9 28.2 8.0 101.1 – 24.5 2.3 134.7 1.2 214.7 1.4 49.5 16.3 77.0 179.6 2956.9 4.1 188.4 – 24.5 – 21.7 – 163.1 – 65.0 1.2 114.9 5.2 577.6 0.1 35.6 3.5 69.6 0.6 127.1 18.0 108.7 22.1 341.0 3.3 123.2 0.3 19.8 109.8 1862.8 – 25.5 27.7 409.2 2.6 117.9 16.8 515.8 1.5 56.4 5.3 17.8 7.1 64.8 1.9 24.9 – 55.1 0.7 235.7 1.0 115.1 1.8 86.0 10.8 86.1 190.7 3816.0 695.8 11104.4 69.7 1732.2 283.9 5568.3 56.3 1022.8 355.5 4513.3 884.5 102.0 90.0 1076.6 24.2 105.3 16.8 10.7 9.3 7.9 32.5 63.6 270.3 13.4 3.3 7.7 41.3 5.4 9.9 8.9 10.5 92.2 118.3 21.4 7.7 0.9 9.0 80.9 10.9 3.1 46.5 9.8 24.9 13.7 10.6 130.4 4.3 77.1 14.5 12.1 32.3 5.5 15.5 78.7 5.5 29.2 955.5 83.3 15.3 4.6 104.2 22.9 76.6 306.9 14.0 32.6 26.3 62.3 135.2 42.5 4.6 375.7 14.5 135.0 57.4 221.8 21.8 7.3 19.3 13.4 49.9 103.3 50.1 36.7 30.0 1183.4 3927.9 702.6 2179.8 189.5 1558.6 600.7 90.0 60.5 751.2 40.0 22.7 2.3 7.3 0.5 3.1 29.1 23.6 128.7 8.5 8.4 17.3 15.3 2.9 7.8 4.1 3.6 39.8 73.8 3.8 10.8 – 4.5 69.9 18.5 2.9 34.7 4.0 12.5 4.1 13.1 378.2 5.2 35.1 0.9 2.8 32.4 17.1 53.8 84.5 43.8 15.4 1029.6 105.8 11.5 17.9 70.3 52.3 36.6 294.4 22.8 36.8 – 25.8 85.4 21.2 15.6 72.6 2.3 37.2 34.2 84.4 27.6 3.4 33.8 3.1 8.3 35.7 11.5 33.7 12.2 436.8 2726.1 441.1 1354.1 548.6 823.4 565.0 33.0 9.0 606.9 0.4 14.6 3.2 2.3 – 0.5 † 2.2 23.3 3.1 † † 4.6 7.5 19.1 4.1 3.4 11.9 80.9 8.6 2.8 0.1 1.4 17.0 33.6 0.2 9.2 0.5 59.4 3.2 7.7 101.3 3.9 14.6 2.0 0.1 30.4 – 39.3 35.4 1.4 16.1 522.7 1.3 – – – – 8.1 9.4 0.7 1.0 102.8 5.7 110.3 51.3 0.4 1406.3 7.0 231.4 30.2 128.7 5.0 2.1 6.7 6.2 – 66.1 40.2 15.4 34.6 2031.2 3303.7 301.2 1170.6 176.9 1956.3 192.0 21.1 2.3 215.4 1.6 3.1 – – – – – – 4.8 – – – 10.4 3.6 6.0 – 5.4 99.6 33.7 – 3.4 – – – – 2.2 0.9 – – – 2.5 36.9 3.8 13.3 14.5 6.2 – – 20.3 11.9 – 2.0 276.7 – – – – – – – – – 3.0 – 3.0 – – 15.5 – 3.5 – 57.0 – – 0.4 – – 34.2 9.2 – – 119.8 619.7 212.7 515.7 60.0 44.0 56.7 2299.0 83.6 329.8 8.6 170.4 148.9 2799.1 8.4 74.7 82.3 228.1 5.4 27.8 9.8 30.2 2.6 12.3 4.5 15.9 19.6 81.4 19.9 109.3 152.5 579.6 7.9 33.0 0.5 12.3 † 25.1 0.1 71.7 0.8 20.1 0.5 43.3 † 17.2 3.9 26.8 14.3 257.9 4.4 311.1 0.8 34.6 † 24.7 2.8 3.9 0.2 15.1 8.8 176.6 1.7 64.7 0.2 8.7 † 91.4 31.8 46.0 0.6 97.4 1.6 22.6 3.9 37.8 37.8 684.6 1.0 18.1 3.8 143.9 14.8 46.7 8.1 29.4 7.5 102.6 – 22.6 2.6 131.5 1.1 211.6 1.4 52.2 17.0 79.7 180.2 2964.6 1.7 192.1 – 26.8 – 22.5 – 174.5 – 75.2 1.2 122.5 2.8 613.5 0.1 37.6 3.9 74.3 0.2 132.3 18.1 111.8 22.2 356.0 3.4 118.3 0.3 20.9 132.4 2002.5 – 23.8 26.2 433.3 2.7 124.4 15.7 507.5 1.5 56.0 5.0 17.9 6.3 66.5 2.2 25.0 – 58.2 0.9 240.1 0.9 112.0 1.6 87.3 11.6 88.4 210.8 3981.9 717.5 11294.9 70.6 1728.2 288.3 5508.4 54.0 1028.9 375.3 4757.5 *In this Review, primary energy comprises commercially traded fuels only. Excluded, therefore, are fuels such as wood, peat and animal waste that, though important in many countries, are unreliably documented in terms of consumption statistics. Also excluded are wind, geothermal and solar power generation. †Less than 0.05. Note: Oil consumption is measured in million tonnes; other fuels in million tonnes of oil equivalent. 41 World consumption Million tonnes oil equivalent 12000 Coal Hydroelectricity Nuclear energy Natural gas Oil 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 0 World primary energy consumption grew by 1.4% in 2008, below the 10-year average. It was the weakest year since 2001. Oil remains the world’s dominant fuel, though it has steadily lost market share to coal and natural gas in recent years. Oil’s share of the world total has fallen from 38.7% to 34.8% over the past decade. Oil consumption and nuclear power generation declined last year, while natural gas and coal consumption, as well as hydroelectric generation, increased. Regional consumption pattern 2008 Percentage 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia Pacific 0 Oil remains the world’s dominant fuel, holding the leading share of consumption in all regions except Europe and Eurasia, and Asia Pacific. Coal is the dominant fuel in Asia Pacific and continues to increase its market share; the region accounts for 61.5% of global coal consumption, the largest global share for any fuel in any region. Natural gas remains the leading fuel in Europe and Eurasia. 42 Consumption per capita 2008 Tonnes oil equivalent 0-1.5 1.5-3.0 3.0-4.5 4.5-6.0 > 6.0 Fossil fuel reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios at end 2008 Years 500 Oil Natural gas Coal 400 300 200 100 OECD Former Soviet Union EMEs excl. Former Soviet Union World 0 Coal remains the world’s most abundant fuel, with a global R/P ratio of more than 120 years. Among fossil fuels, coal reserves remain the most closely co-located with key consuming centres in Asia Pacific and North America. Oil’s global R/P ratio has tended to rise over time, and has remained above 40 years since 1998. 43 BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 Appendices Approximate conversion factors Crude oil* From To tonnes (metric) kilolitres barrels Multiply by US gallons tonnes per year Units 1 metric tonne = 2204.62lb = 1.1023 short tons 1 kilolitre = 6.2898 barrels = 1 cubic metre 1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4.187kJ = 3.968Btu 1 kilojoule (kJ) = 0.239kcal = 0.948Btu 1 British thermal unit (Btu) = 0.252kcal = 1.055kJ 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 860kcal = 3600kJ = 3412Btu Tonnes (metric) Kilolitres Barrels US gallons Barrels per day *Based on worldwide average gravity. 1 0.8581 0.1364 0.00325 – 1.165 1 0.159 0.0038 – 7.33 6.2898 1 0.0238 – 307.86 264.17 42 1 – – – – – 49.8 Products To convert barrels to tonnes tonnes kilolitres to barrels to tonnes Multiply by tonnes to kilolitres Calorific equivalents One tonne of oil equivalent equals approximately: 10 million kilocalories 42 gigajoules 40 million British thermal units Solid fuels 1.5 tonnes of hard coal 3 tonnes of lignite Gaseous fuels See Natural gas and liquefied natural gas table Electricity 12 megawatt-hours One million tonnes of oil or oil equivalent produces about 4400 gigawatt-hours (= 4.4 terawatt-hours) of electricity in a modern power station. Heat units Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Gasoline Kerosene Gas oil/diesel Fuel oil 0.086 0.118 0.128 0.133 0.149 11.6 8.5 7.8 7.5 6.7 0.542 0.740 0.806 0.839 0.939 1.844 1.351 1.240 1.192 1.065 Natural gas (NG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) From To billion cubic metres NG billion cubic million tonnes million tonnes feet NG oil equivalent LNG Multiply by trillion British million barrels thermal units oil equivalent 1 billion cubic metres NG 1 billion cubic feet NG 1 million tonnes oil equivalent 1 million tonnes LNG 1 trillion British thermal units 1 million barrels oil equivalent 1 0.028 1.11 1.36 0.028 0.15 35.3 1 39.2 48.0 0.99 5.35 0.90 0.025 1 1.22 0.025 0.14 0.74 0.021 0.82 1 0.021 0.11 35.7 1.01 39.7 48.6 1 5.41 6.60 0.19 7.33 8.97 0.18 1 North Africa: Algeria, Libya. West Africa: Angola, Nigeria. Asia Pacific: Indonesia. South America: Ecuador, Venezuela. European Union members Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK. Other EMEs (Emerging Market Economies) South and Central America, Africa, Middle East, non-OECD Asia, non-OECD Europe. Definitions Statistics published in this Review are taken from government sources and published data. No use is made of confidential information obtained by BP in the course of its business. Country groupings are made purely for statistical purposes and are not intended to imply any judgement about political or economic standings. North America US (excluding Puerto Rico), Canada, Mexico. South and Central America Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), Central and South America. Europe European members of the OECD plus Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Gibraltar, Malta, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia. Former Soviet Union Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Europe and Eurasia All countries listed above under the headings Europe and Former Soviet Union. Middle East Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria. 44 North Africa Territories on the north coast of Africa from Egypt to western Sahara. West Africa Territories on the west coast of Africa from Mauritania to Angola, including Cape Verde, Chad. East and Southern Africa Territories on the east coast of Africa from Sudan to Republic of South Africa. Also Botswana, Madagascar, Malawi, Namibia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Asia Pacific Brunei, Cambodia, China, China Hong Kong SAR*, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, North Korea, Philippines, Singapore, South Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka), South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Oceania. *Special Administrative Region. Australasia Australia, New Zealand. OECD members Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK. Other member countries: Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, South Korea, US. OPEC members Middle East: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates. Methodology The primary energy values of both nuclear and hydroelectric power generation have been derived by calculating the equivalent amount of fossil fuel required to generate the same volume of electricity in a thermal power station, assuming a conversion efficiency of 38% (the average for OECD thermal power generation). Percentages Calculated before rounding of actuals. All annual changes and shares of totals are on a weight basis except on pages 6, 14, 18, 20 and 22. Rounding differences Because of rounding, some totals may not agree exactly with the sum of their component parts. Tonnes Metric equivalent of tons. BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009 More information Questions on data BP regrets it is unable to deal with enquiries about the data in BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009. Ordering copies You can order BP’s printed publications, free of charge, from: US and Canada BP Shareholder Services Toll-free +1 800 638 5672 Fax +1 630 821 3456 shareholderus@bp.com UK and Rest of World BP Distribution Services Tel +44 (0)870 241 3269 Fax +44 (0)870 240 5753 bpdistributionservices@bp.com The data in this publication is also available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview. In addition to viewing, data can be downloaded and charted using the charting tool. Quoting from the Review Publishers are welcome to quote from this Review provided that they attribute the source to BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009. However, where extensive reproduction of tables and/or charts is planned, permission must first be obtained from: The Editor BP Statistical Review of World Energy BP p.l.c. 1 St James’s Square London SW1Y 4PD UK sr@bp.com The redistribution or reproduction of data whose source is Platts is strictly prohibited without prior authorization from Platts. Acknowledgements Data compilation Energy Academy and Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot-Watt University, www.energy.hw.ac.uk Design sasdesign.co.uk Typesetting Orb Solutions, London ® Printing Beacon Press using its environmental print technology. The electricity was generated from renewable sources and approximately 90% of the waste associated with this product will be recycled. Beacon Press is registered to environmental management system ISO 14001 and EMAS (Eco Management Audit Scheme). Beacon Press is a CarbonNeutral ® company and has planted more than 3,000 trees to offset its carbon emissions. Paper This Review is printed on FSC-certified Revive Uncoated Enhanced paper. This paper has been independently certified according to the rules of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and it was manufactured at a mill that holds ISO 14001 accreditation. The inks used are all vegetable oil based. © BP p.l.c. 2009 45 beyond petroleum® ...
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