In Vitro Fertilization

In Vitro Fertilization - In Vitro Fertilization: the...

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In Vitro Fertilization: the Scientific Aspects and its Ethical Concerns ChenChen Costelloe November 13, 2009 Microbiology 101 Dr. Hughes
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INTRODUCTION Our reliance and dependence on technology increase with the emergence of twenty second century. With this rapid growth and advancement in technology, the number of treatments for infertility has also been multiplying. The process of in vitro fertilization is becoming more and more popular in not only Europe, but also in the United States (Andersen, 2006). Along with intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection, they are the most practiced methods when facing the tragedy of infertility. In vitro contributes to almost 3 percent of births in many European countries and approximately 1 percent in the overall U.S. births overall (Schieve, 2006). Currently, the assisted reproduction techniques are bringing fertility to over 85% of the infertile couples each year, and in total they contributes to over 1% of the annual natality in the western world (Steel, 2009). In Vitro Fertilization is a very complicated process in which it involves many steps. Preparation and stimulation of the ovaries of the female must take place prior the procedure to ensure that the procedure can take place under best conditions (C.A.R.S, 2009). Urine or blood tests can be conducted to monitor the development of healthy oocytes in the ovaries (Garcia, 2005). Medications in forms of injection or oral medicine can be used to control the development (Garcia, 2005). A very common method is the intake of a GnRH analogue in the form of an injection. This injection is a peptide drug that will mimic the release of the natural hormone GnRH, which will cooperate with the GnRH receptor to stimulate the release of FSH and LH to allow the development of more than one follicle (C.A.R.S, 2009). Many tests such as ultrasound scans, blood tests, or urine tests can be conducted to monitor the correct conditions of ovary and uterus (C.A.R.S, 2009). When the follicles range is detected to be about16-22 mm, and the estradiol hormone level range reaches 400 pg/ml (C.A.R.S, 2009), an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is given to the patient to ensure the final maturation of the oocytes in the ovaries (C.A.R.S, 2009). Upon the confirmation that the oocyte has matured, a procedure called follicle aspiration will be performed on the patient. Follicle aspiration is done very precisely to obtain the eggs from the ovaries using a needle (Garcia, 2005), which takes place 35-37 hours after the injection of hCG (C.A.R.S, 2009). A common problem often encountered at this point is the occurance of ovulation before the eggs are removed from the ovaries (C.A.R.S, 2009). To prevent this occurance, a speculum is used prior to follicle aspiration rinse the vagina with large amounts of sterile water (C.A.R.S, 2009). This must be done very carefully because strong antiseptic agents can kill the eggs. The procedure of follicle aspiration is performed under the guidance of ultrasound
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In Vitro Fertilization - In Vitro Fertilization: the...

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