Extraction lab report

Extraction lab report - Extraction: A Separation and...

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Extraction: A Separation and Isolation Technique Meera Mohan Chemistry 227 Laboratory, Section 005 Instructor: Jean November 16, 2009 Abstract This paper describes and analyzes the procedures and results of the extraction of three different compounds—an acid, a base, and a neutral compound—with the extraction solvent diethyl ether. The acid and base were extracted by using NaOH and NaCL and then converted into organic compounds through a series of procedures. The neutral compound was also converted from a solution with ether into an organic compound through a series of steps described in this paper as well. Once the compounds were extracted and were converted into their organic compound phase, the melting point and percent yield of each compound was determined to in order to assess the each compound’s purity and the overall success of the experiment. From analyzing measurements of the melting points, m-Nitroaniline and naphthalene were found to be impure and benzoic acid was found to be almost pure with very few impurities. Also, both m-Nitroaniline and benzoic acid were heated too quickly during the melting point procedure, which resulted in higher melting point temperatures compared to their literature melting points. The calculations of the percent yields showed that some of m-Nitroaniline and naphthalene were lost during the course of the experiment, and the percent yield of benzoic acid proved that too much acid was added when converting the sodium salt to its organic acid. Introduction
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The goals of this experiment are to extract desired compounds from a mixture using ether and acid-base reactions and to assess the success of the extraction processes with melting ranges and percent yields. Extraction is a process used in order to separate an organic product from its mixture. The extraction process can also be used to separate an organic substance from its natural source. For a solvent to be considered an extraction solvent, it must be able to dissolve the substance that needs to be extracted and not dissolve any other substance. Another requirement for extraction solvents is that they should not react with the desired substance to be extracted in any undesirable way. The extraction solvent must be able to react with the substance in such a way that the substance can be removed from the mixture through a simple procedure such as distillation. Diethyl ether is an example of an extraction solvent. This organic solvent is commonly used because it has a low boiling point of 35 C and most organic compounds are soluble in it. There are two characteristics of diethyl ether, however, that chemists must be aware of in order to take the necessary and proper precautions and to avoid errors in their experiments. Diethyl ether is highly flammable and slightly water soluble. Care should be taken when dealing with ether and extra procedures may be necessary in order to eliminate the water from the ether solution. By manipulating acid/base reactions, substances can be extracted from a mixture with ether as the solvent.
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2010 for the course CH 227 taught by Professor O'connor during the Spring '09 term at Clemson.

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Extraction lab report - Extraction: A Separation and...

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