Ch 6 - Alkyl Halides - 6 Alkyl Halides: NucleophilIc...

Ch 6 - Alkyl Halides
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6 Alkyl Halides: NucleophilIc SubstitutIon and Elimi±aTIo± 6-1 I ntrod uction 212 Our study of organic chemIstry Is organized Into fam±lies of compounds classiFed by theIr functional groups. ²n this chapter, we consIder the propertIes and reactions of alkyL halIdes³ We use theIr reactions to Introduce substItution and elImInatIon´ two of the most important types of reactions In organIc chemistryµ Stereochemistry (Chapter 5) wiL¶ p¶ay a major ro¶e In our study of these reactIons. Many other reactions show sImI- larItIes to substItution and elImination, and the techniques Introduced in thIs chapter wIll be used throughout our study of organic reactions³ There are three major classes of organoha¶ogen compounds: the a¶kyL ha¶ides· the vInyl halIdes¸ and the aryl halIdes¹ An alkyl halide sImply has a ha¶ogen atoº bonded to one of the sp 3 hybrid carbon atoms of an alkyl group³ A vinyl halide has a haLogen atom bonded to one of the 2 hybrId carbon atoms of an alkene³ An aryl halide has a halogen atom bonded to one of the 2 hybrId carbon atoms of an aromatIc Ring³ The chemistry of vInyl haLides and »Ryl halIdes Is di¼erent from that of alkyl ha¶ides because their bondIng and hybrIdIzation are di¼erent½ We consIder the reactions of vinyl ha¶ides and aryL halIdes in ¶ater chapters. The s¾ructures of some representatIve a¶ky¶ halides, vInyl halIdes, and aryl halIdes are shown here¿ with theIr most common names and uses. Alkyl haLideS CHCl3 CHCÀÁ2 CC¶3 ÂCH3 CÁ3 Ã CHClBr chlorofoRm Freon-22 ® 1,1± L²trich³oroethane Ha³othane solvent refrIgeraNt cleaNI´g fl uId noNflammable anesthetIc VinYl halides C \ / H Á " / Á C=C Ä ' H H Ä ' Á Á vINyl chlorIde monomer for poly( v µ nyl ch¶orIde) tetrafluoroethylene ·TFE) moNome¸ ¹or Teflon º Ar±l halideS ( PA»A¼dIch½oroBenzene mothBalls h NHÆ - _ Ç y È ' CHÉÂ ² HÂCOOH Ê ² thyroxIne thyroµd hormone
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