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Ch 10 - Structure and Synthesis of Alcohols

Ch 10 - Structure and Synthesis of Alcohols - Structure and...

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10 Structure and Synthesis of Alcohols 10-1 Introduction 10-2 Structure and Classification of Alcohols Alcohols are organic compounds containing hydroxyl ( - OH) groups. They are some of the most common and useful compounds in nature, in industry, and around the house. The word alcohol is one of the oldest chemical terms, derived from the early Arabic al-kuhl. Originally it meant "the powder," and later "the essence." Ethyl alcohol, distilled from wine, was considered to be "the essence" of wine. Ethyl alcohol (grain alcohol) is found in alcoholic beverages, cosmetics, and drug preparations. Methyl alcohol (wood alcohol) is used as a fuel and solvent. Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alco- hol) is used as a skin cleanser for injections and minor cuts. CH3-CH2 -OH ethyl alcohol ethanol CH3-OH methyl alcohol methanol OH I CH3-CH-CH3 isopropyl alcohol 2 - propanol Alcohols are synthesized by a wide variety of methods, and the hydroxyl group may be converted to most other functional groups. For these reasons, alcohols are ver- satile synthetic intermediates. In this chapter, we discuss the physical properties of
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