Ch 18 - Ketones and Aldehydes

Ch 18 - Ketones and Aldehydes - 18 Ketones and Aldehydes...

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18 Ketones and Aldehydes We will study compounds containing The carbonyl group ( C = 0) in deTail because they are of cenTral impoRtance to organic chemisTry, biochemistry, and bioLogy. Some the common types carbonyL lisTed in ±abLe 18-1. CarbonyL compounds are everywhere² In addiTion To their uses as reagents and solvents, They are constituenTs fabrics³ fLavorings´ pLasTics, and drugs² NaTuraLly oc- curring carbonyl incLude proteins, carbohydrates, and nucLeic acids ThaT make up aLL planTs and animals² µn next few chapters, we wiL¶ discuss properTies and reacTions simple compounds. ±hen, in ChapTers 23 and 24, we apply Th·s carbonyl chemis¸ry tO ¹ArbºhydrATes³ nucleic acids³ and proTeins» ±he simpLesT carbonyl compounds are ketones and aldehydes² ¼ ketone has Two aLkyl (or aryl) groups bonded to The carbonyl carbon atom. ¼n aldehyde has one aLky½ (or aryL¾ group and one hydrogen aTom bonded to The carbonyL aTom» 0 0 0 Ii ±± ²² c C C /' ± ² ± ' ¿ ¿' ¿ H ketone aldehyde cArbo NyL group co ndensed structuRes: R CO R ' R C H O Ketone: ±wo aÀKyl gÁoups bonded To  caÁbonyl grouP» Ald e hydE ± Ãne ÄLKyl gÁoup Änd one hydrogen bÅnded Æo Ç ÈÇÁbonyl gÁoup. TABLE 18-1 Some Common Classes of Carbonyl Compounds class General Formula class General FoRmula 0 0 II ii ketones R- C ² Aldehydes R- C -H 0 0 II ii cARboxylic Acids R ² C ² ´H AcId cH lorIdes R- C -CL 0 0 II iI esTers R- C ² O ² AmIdes C - NH2 18-1 Carbonyl Compounds 805
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