2-1 1 Models will be helpful here. (a) cis-trans isomers-the first is trans, the second is cis (b) constitutional isomers-the carbon skeleton is different (c) constitutional isomers-the bromines are on different carbons in the first structure, on the same carbon in the second structure (d) same compound-just flipped over (e) same compound-just rotated (f) same compound-just rotated (g) not isomers-different molecular formulas (h) constitutional isomers-the double bond has changed position (i) same compound-just reversed (j) constitutional isomers-the CH3 groups are in different relative positions (k) constitutional isomers-the double bond is in a different position relative to the CH3 2-12 (a) 2.4 D = 4.8 x 8 x 1.21 A 8 = 0.41, or 41 % of a positive charge on carbon and 41 % of a negative charge on oxygen (b) :0: I .. .. .....C ..... R ..... + R B Resonance form A must be the major contributor. If B were the major contributor, the value of the charge separation would be between 0.5 and 1.0. Even though B is "minor", it is quite significant, explaining in
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