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Eyewitness: Olympe de Gouges Declares the Rights of Women●AKA Marie Gouze●Gouges = revolutionary and strong advocate of women’s rights (French Rev in July 1789)●Rev. Leaders proclaimed freedom & equality for citizens in the Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen○Only pertained male citizens○Accept women’s contribution but grant them with no political/social rights●Gouges wants equal share rights in family property and education○Appealed to Queen Marie Antoinette to use her influence on women’s rights○1791-published a Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen■Same rights as Rev. leaders that granted men ●Rev. leaders dismissed her appeals and 1793 got executed b/c of her affection for Antoinette and her crusade for women’s rights○18th-century Enlightenment movement (equality & freedom)●Violent Rev. Based on Enlightenment principles brought political and social changes in 18th and 19th century○Rev. broke out first in British colonies of NA, where colonists found a new republic○Rev. abolished the french monarchy and reorganized French Society.○Latin American seek independence from Spanish and Portuguese colonial rule○In St. Domingue, rev led to the abolition of slavery and independence from French rule●Rev spread enlightenment ideas (freedom, equality, popular sovereignty)○Establish a republican form of gov’t and represent their interest○Also, people defend their states from enemies or attack on foreign land, they develop a national identity which led movements to build national states in European states.Popular Sovereignty & Political Upheaval●Rev argued popular sovereignty- political authority resides not only the king but rather in the people who make up a society●In NA, the colonist declared independence from British rule and instituted a new gov’t under popular sovereignty ●French rev abolished the monarchy and revamped the social order●Early 19th century, Napoleon Bonaparte imposed military rule on France and helped spread revolutionary ideas to much of western EuropeThe Enlightenment and Revolutionary Ideas●Isaac Newton’s work on the rationality of the laws of physics suggested that human behavior and institutions might also be guided by rational laws○In 17th and 18 century, European/American thinkers launched the project to discover laws governed humanity■Ex: John Locke (1632-1704)- the natural law of politics
■Adam Smith (1723-1790)- laws of economics●Abandoned Aristotelian philosophy & Chrisitan religion → Led enlightenment●Enlightenment thought was from France (philosophers)- composed histories, novels, dramas, satires and pamphlet on religion and political issue Voltaire●Francois-Marie Arouet (1694-1778) championed individual freedom and attacked any institution sponsoring intolerant or oppressive policies while writing under the pen name Voltaire○Target French monarchy and Roman Catholic Church2/04/20Popular sovereignty and political upheaval1.Enlightened and revolutionary ideas1.Popular sovereignty: relocating sovereignty in the people