Chapter 25_ Revolutions and National States in the Atlantic World.docx

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Eyewitness: Olympe de Gouges Declares the Rights of Women AKA Marie Gouze Gouges = revolutionary and strong advocate of women’s rights (French Rev in July 1789) Rev. Leaders proclaimed freedom & equality for citizens in the Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen Only pertained male citizens Accept women’s contribution but grant them with no political/social rights Gouges wants equal share rights in family property and education Appealed to Queen Marie Antoinette to use her influence on women’s rights 1791- published a Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citize n Same rights as Rev. leaders that granted men Rev. leaders dismissed her appeals and 1793 got executed b/c of her affection for Antoinette and her crusade for women’s rights 18th-century Enlightenment movement (equality & freedom) Violent Rev. Based on Enlightenment principles brought political and social changes in 18th and 19th century Rev. broke out first in British colonies of NA, where colonists found a new republic Rev. abolished the french monarchy and reorganized French Society. Latin American seek independence from Spanish and Portuguese colonial rule In St. Domingue, rev led to the abolition of slavery and independence from French rule Rev spread enlightenment ideas (freedom, equality, popular sovereignty) Establish a republican form of gov’t and represent their interest Also, people defend their states from enemies or attack on foreign land, they develop a national identity which led movements to build national states in European states. Popular Sovereignty & Political Upheaval Rev argued popular sovereignty- political authority resides not only the king but rather in the people who make up a society In NA, the colonist declared independence from British rule and instituted a new gov’t under popular sovereignty French rev abolished the monarchy and revamped the social order Early 19th century, Napoleon Bonaparte imposed military rule on France and helped spread revolutionary ideas to much of western Europe The Enlightenment and Revolutionary Ideas Isaac Newton’s work on the rationality of the laws of physics suggested that human behavior and institutions might also be guided by rational laws In 17th and 18 century, European/American thinkers launched the project to discover laws governed humanity Ex: John Locke (1632-1704)- the natural law of politics
Adam Smith (1723-1790)- laws of economics Abandoned Aristotelian philosophy & Chrisitan religion → Led enlightenment Enlightenment thought was from France (philosophers)- composed histories, novels, dramas, satires and pamphlet on religion and political issue Voltaire Francois-Marie Arouet (1694-1778) championed individual freedom and attacked any institution sponsoring intolerant or oppressive policies while writing under the pen name Voltaire Target French monarchy and Roman Catholic Church 2/04/20 Popular sovereignty and political upheaval 1. Enlightened and revolutionary ideas 1. Popular sovereignty: relocating sovereignty in the people
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