13-45 (a) CH3 CH3 \ / C=C / \ CH3 H Isomer A b d CH3 CH3 \ / C=C / \ CH3 H c a Isomer A a = 85.2 (quartet, 1H) b = 81.7 (singlet, 3H) c = 8 1.6 (singlet, 3H) d = 81.5 (doublet, 3H) + H CH3 \ / C=C / \ H CH2CH3 Isomer B d f H CH3 \ / C=C / \ H CH2CH3 d e g Isomer B d = 84.7 (singlet, 2H) e = 82.0 (quartet, 2H) f = 8 1.7 (singlet, 3H) g = 8 1.0 (triplet, 3H) (b) With NaOH as base, the more highly substituted alkene, Isomer A, would be expected to predominate--the Zaitsev Rule. With KO-t-Bu as a hindered, bulky base, the less substituted alkene, Isomer B , would predominate (the Hofmann product). 13-46 "Nuclear waste" is comprised of radioactive products from either nuclear reactions, for example, from electrical generating stations powered by nuclear reactors, or residue from medical or scientific studies using radioactive nuclides as therapeutic agents (like iodine for thyroid treatment) or as molecular tracers (carbon-14, tritium H-3, phosphorus-32, nitrogen-I 5, and many others). The physical technique of
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