Solutions_Manual_for_Organic_Chemistry_6th_Ed 496

Solutions_Manual_for_Organic_Chemistry_6th_Ed 496 -...

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20-44 (A more complete discussion of acidity and electronic effects can be found is Appendix 2.) A few words about the two types of electronic effects: induction and resonance. Inductive effects are a result of polarized (J bonds, usually because of electronegative atom substituents. Resonance effects work through 11: systems, requiring overlap of p orbitals to delocalize electrons. All substituents have an inductive effect compared to hydrogen (the reference). Many groups also have a resonance effect; all that is required to have a resonance effect is that the atom or group have at least one p orbital for overlap. The most interesting groups have both inductive and resonance effects. In such groups, how can we tell the direction of electron movement, that is, whether a group is electron-donating or electron-withdrawing? And do the resonance and inductive effects reinforce or conflict with each other? We can never "tum off'
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