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HC Resource 3 - JOURNAL OF CRUSTACEAN BIOLOGY 20(4 786795...

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Calcinus latens (Randall) and C . gaimardii (H. Milne Edwards), by investigating the dis- tribution of these species and gastropods (liv- ing and dead), utilization of shell types in the Feld, shell-Ft test in the Feld, and shell se- lection under laboratory conditions. Both species are common hermit crabs found on coral reefs of Kenting, southern Taiwan. Shell utilization by these two hermit crab species is described in terms of the relationship be- tween crab and shell parameters, and of shell adequacy. M ATERIALS AND M ETHODS ±our sampling sites, located at the Kenting National Park in southern Taiwan (±ig. 1), were chosen on the ba- sis of whether they included the possible habitats of her- mit crabs and were easy to reach. Site 1. Houwan is a large intertidal reef flat (about 100–200 m in width), where the hard bottom is covered by sand and small rocks. The bottom topography is very smooth, and almost no large rocks are present to provide refuge for intertidal animals. Most parts of the high in- tertidal zone at this site are sandy and inhabited by sea- grasses ( Thalassia hemprichii ) and seaweeds. The low in- tertidal zone is a large, smooth reef ²at with some de- pressions on the bottom. The slope of the subtidal zone is gradual. Site 2. Maopitou is a section of reef shore in which the water is always turbulent, and the topography is diverse. The sampled area consists of a large tidepool, which can be divided into front and back pools, both measuring Hermit crabs live in empty gastropod shells and change shells frequently to allow con- tinuous growth. Under natural conditions, they do not kill healthy snails to obtain empty shells (Scully, 1983). Therefore, their shell re- source depends on natural mortality of gas- tropods. Because empty shells are rare on most seashores (Provenzano, 1960; Childress, 1972; Vance, 1972a; Spight, 1977), the avail- ability of empty shells may be a limiting fac- tor for some hermit crab populations. The ad- vantages of owning a shell include provid- ing space for growth, protection from predators, and preventing the abdomen from suffering mechanical abrasion. In addition, a shell prevents a crab from damage due to tem- perature stress, water loss, and salinity stress (reviewed by Lancaster, 1988). A suitable empty shell is important to a hermit crab; a very small shell may inhibit a crab’s growth (Markham, 1968; ±otheringham, 1976a; Bert- ness, 1981a, b; Hazlett, 1981). In contrast, a very bulky shell also has disadvantages, e.g., more energy is expended to carry it (Elwood and Glass, 1981), resulting in inhibition of an individual’s growth (Bertness, 1981a), and lo- comotion is more difFcult (Hazlett, 1970a). The purpose of this study is to examine shell utilization by two hermit crab species, JOURNAL O± CRUSTACEAN BIOLOGY, 20(4): 786–795, 2000 UTILIZATION O± SHELL RESOURCES BY THE HERMIT CRABS CALCINUS LATENS AND CALCINUS GAIMARDII AT KENTING, SOUTHERN TAIWAN Hsi-Te Shih and Hin-Kiu Mok Institute of Marine Biology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan; (H-TS) current
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HC Resource 3 - JOURNAL OF CRUSTACEAN BIOLOGY 20(4 786795...

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