OptiSystem_Getting_Started

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Unformatted text preview: OptiSystem Getting Started Optical Communication System Design Software Version 5.0 for Windows® 2000/XP OptiSystem Getting Started Optical Communication System Design Software Copyright © 2006 Optiwave All rights reserved. All OptiSystem documents, including this one, and the information contained therein, is copyright material. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means whatsoever, including recording, photocopying, or faxing, without prior written approval of Optiwave. Disclaimer Optiwave makes no representation or warranty with respect to the adequacy of this documentation or the programs which it describes for any particular purpose or with respect to its adequacy to produce any particular result. In no event shall Optiwave, its employees, its contractors or the authors of this documentation be liable for special, direct, indirect or consequential damages, losses, costs, charges, claims, demands, or claim for lost profits, fees or expenses of any nature or kind. Technical support If you purchased Optiwave software from a distributor that is not listed here, please send technical questions to your distributor. Optiwave Tel Fax Canada/US (613) 224-4700 (613) 224-4706 E-mail URL support@optiwave.com www.optiwave.com Cybernet Systems Co., Ltd. Tel Fax Japan E-mail URL +81 (03) 5978-5414 +81 (03) 5978-6082 owtech@cybernet.co.jp www.cybernet.co.jp Light Tec Tel Fax Europe +33 494 12 18 48 +33 494 12 18 49 E-mail URL support@lighttec.fr www.lighttec.fr Table of contents Installing OptiSystem .................................................................................................1 Hardware and software requirements ...................................................................................1 Protection key..........................................................................................................................1 OptiSystem directory ..............................................................................................................2 Installation ...............................................................................................................................2 Windows 2000/XP installation....................................................................................2 Technical support ...................................................................................................................2 What’s New in OptiSystem 5.0...................................................................................3 OptiSystem Multimode Edition: .............................................................................................3 OptiSystem Amplifier Edition.................................................................................................3 Unlimited Capabilities with MATLAB: ...................................................................................3 New Component Libraries:.....................................................................................................4 Optical Sources..........................................................................................................4 Bit Sequence Generators...........................................................................................4 Optical Transmitters ...................................................................................................4 Multimode Transmitters..............................................................................................4 Optical Fibers .............................................................................................................4 Passives.....................................................................................................................4 Regenerators .............................................................................................................4 Optical Receivers .......................................................................................................5 Optiwave Software Tools ...........................................................................................5 Free Space Optics .....................................................................................................5 MATLAB Library.........................................................................................................5 Visualizers..................................................................................................................5 Optimizations...........................................................................................................................5 Graphical User Interface Improvements ...............................................................................5 Application and Validation Projects ......................................................................................6 Features introduced in OptiSystem 4.1 ....................................................................7 Dynamic Er-Yb Codoped Fiber: .............................................................................................7 Brillouin Effect:........................................................................................................................7 Doped Fiber Nonlinearities: ...................................................................................................7 Time-Driven Directly Modulated Lasers:...............................................................................7 BER Analyzer:..........................................................................................................................7 Analog CATV Design: .............................................................................................................7 Introduction .................................................................................................................9 Benefits ..................................................................................................................................11 Applications...........................................................................................................................11 Main features .........................................................................................................................12 Quick Start .................................................................................................................15 Starting OptiSystem..............................................................................................................15 Main parts of the GUI ............................................................................................................17 Project layout ...........................................................................................................17 Dockers ....................................................................................................................18 Component Library ..................................................................................................18 Project Browser .......................................................................................................18 Description .............................................................................................................. 19 Status Bar ................................................................................................................19 Component parameters ........................................................................................................24 Global parameters.................................................................................................................31 Appendix A: Global Parameters ..............................................................................41 Simulation parameters..........................................................................................................44 Simulation window ...................................................................................................44 Reference bit rate.....................................................................................................45 Bit rate......................................................................................................................45 Time window ............................................................................................................46 Sample rate..............................................................................................................46 Sequence length ......................................................................................................47 Samples per bit ........................................................................................................47 Number of samples ..................................................................................................47 Signals parameters ...............................................................................................................49 Iterations ..................................................................................................................50 Initial Delay...............................................................................................................50 Parameterized..........................................................................................................50 Noise parameters ..................................................................................................................51 Convert noise bins ...................................................................................................51 Spatial Effects Parameters ...................................................................................................52 Space Width X .........................................................................................................52 Space Width Y .........................................................................................................52 Grid Spacing Width X...............................................................................................53 Grid Spacing Width Y...............................................................................................53 Signal Tracing Parameters ...................................................................................................53 Calculate Signal Tracing ..........................................................................................54 Power Unit................................................................................................................54 Frequency Unit.........................................................................................................54 Decimal Places ........................................................................................................54 Sensitivity .................................................................................................................54 Resolution ................................................................................................................54 Calculate Noise Floor...............................................................................................54 Interpolation Offset...................................................................................................54 Signal representation............................................................................................................55 Binary signals...........................................................................................................56 M-Ary Signals...........................................................................................................56 Electrical signals ......................................................................................................56 Optical signals..........................................................................................................59 Sampled signals ......................................................................................................59 Example ..................................................................................................................59 Parameterized signals .............................................................................................60 Example ..................................................................................................................61 Noise bins ...............................................................................................................62 Notes: .....................................................................................................................................65 Installing OptiSystem Before installing OptiSystem, ensure the system requirements described below are available. Hardware and software requirements OptiSystem requires the following minimum system configuration: • • • • • • • PC with Pentium 3 processor or equivalent Microsoft Windows 2000, or Windows XP with Service Pack 1 400 MB free hard disk space 1024 x 768 graphic resolution, minimum 65536 colors 128 MB of RAM (recommended) Internet Explorer 5.5 or higher DirectX 8.1 or higher Protection key A hardware protection key is supplied with the software. Note: Please ensure that the hardware protection key is NOT connected during the installation of OptiSystem. To ensure that OptiSystem operates properly, verify the following: • • The protection key is properly connected to the parallel/USB port of the computer. If you use more than one protection key, ensure that there is no conflict between the OptiSystem protection key and the other keys. Note: Use a switch box to prevent protection key conflicts. Ensure that the cable between the switch box and the computer is a maximum of one meter long. 1 INSTALLING OPTISYSTEM OptiSystem directory By default, the OptiSystem installer creates an OptiSystem directory on your hard disk. The OptiSystem directory contains the following subdirectories: • • • • • • \bin — executable files, dynamic linked libraries, and help files \components — OptiSystem component parameters from vendors \doc — OptiSystem support documentation \libraries — OptiSystem component libraries \samples — OptiSystem example files \toolbox — MATLAB related files Note: For the users of the Amplifier Edition of OptiSystem, refer to the '\Optical Amplifiers' folder under '\Samples'. For the users of the Multimode Edition of OptiSystem, refer to the '\Multimode' folder under '\Samples'. Installation OptiSystem can be installed on Windows 2000/XP. We recommend that you exit all Windows programs before running the setup program. Windows 2000/XP installation To install OptiSystem on Windows 2000/XP, perform the following procedure. Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 Action Log on as the Administrator, or log onto an account with Administrator privileges. Insert the OptiSystem CD into your CD ROM drive. On the Taskbar, click Start and select Run. The Run dialog box appears. In the Run dialog box, type F:\setup.exe, where F is your CD ROM drive. Click OK and follow the screen instructions and prompts. When the installation is complete, reboot your computer. Technical support Phone Fax E-Mail URL (613) 224-4700—Monday to Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (613) 224-4706 support@optiwave.com www.optiwave.com 2 What’s New in OptiSystem 5.0 OptiSystem 5.0 is the latest edition of our increasingly popular optical communication system design tool. Featuring a number of requested enhancements to address the design of passive optic network (PON) based FTTx, free-space optics (FSO) and radio over fiber systems (ROF), OptiSystem 5.0 is a product of our strong relationship with our global customer base. In response to providing a flexible licensing structure to our customers, OptiSystem 5.0 is available in two additional stand-alone configurations: Amplifier or Multimode Editions. OptiSystem Multimode Edition OptiSystem Multimode Edition allows the design, analysis and simulation of multimode fiber communication systems. The Multimode Component Library of OptiSystem 5.0 includes a new LP mode solver that offers better performance in accuracy and convergence. New components extend the integration between OptiSystem and Optiwave software tools. The MATLAB interface was also extended to allow users to create multimode components by calculating the temporal and spatial propagation of signals. OptiSystem Amplifier Edition OptiSystem Amplifier Edition allows computer-aided design of a variety of waveguide and fiber optic amplifiers. OptiSystem assists the user in determining the tradeoff between EDFAs, EYDFs, EYDWs, YDFs, SOAs and Raman amplifiers cost and performance. Four-Wave Mixing, Stimulated Brillouin Scattering, Self-Phase Modulation, Cross-Phase Modulation, and Stimulated Raman Scattering are all included as options to the Yb and Er-Yb codoped fiber models in OptiSystem 5.0. A new Gain Flattening Filter optimization is another feature of the amplifier edition of OptiSystem. Unlimited Capabilities with MATLAB The MATLAB interface was extended to include time-driven and multimode signals. Users can design their own multimode components such as transmitters, lenses, multimode fibers, receivers and visualizers using the new interface. Users can also co-simulate time-driven signals using their own gain control schemes with MATLAB when designing control loops for optical fiber amplifiers. OptiSystem interface also allows for post-processing and optimization of OptiSystem projects. 3 WHAT’S NEW IN OPTISYSTEM 5.0 New Component Libraries Optical Sources • Controlled Pump Laser: A new pump laser that can be controlled by an electrical analog signal allows the design and simulation of automatic gain control schemes for optical amplifiers, such as control loops for the pump laser current Laser Measured: New measurements such as RIN and linewidth extend the fitting capabilities of the rate equations model and allows for an even easier setup of analog systems. • Bit Sequence Generators • Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence Generator: A new parameter allows the user to generate a different PRBS for each run when simulating metro/ring networks. It also affects WDM and Spatial Optical Transmitters. Optical Transmitters • Optical Transmitter: Encapsulates different components, allowing you to select different modulation formats and schemes in a single component. Multimode Transmitters • Measured Transverse Mode Generator: These components attach measured transverse mode profiles using the popular F3D format to the input signal. They also convert single-mode signals into multimode signals. Optical Fibers • Measured-Index Multimode Fiber: A new LP mode solver allows for improved accuracy when calculating group delay for fibers with an arbitrary refractive index. Passives • Vortex Lens: A combination of a parabolic lens and a phase vortex. Similar to the thin lens component, it applies a phase transformation to the transverse mode profiles, affecting the focus of the signal beam. Electrical Attenuator: Attenuates the electrical signal. • Regenerators • Electronic Equalizer: It can work as a fractionally or spaced feed-forward equalizer (FFE), decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) or a combination of both. A least mean square (LMS) algorithm is used to update the filter tap coefficients. 4 WHAT’S NEW IN OPTISYSTEM 5.0 Optical Receivers • Optical Receivers: A new sensitivity parameter allows for easy calibration of optical systems based on a target Q-Factor and extinction ratio. Optiwave Software Tools • Save Transverse Mode: This component saves each transverse mode profile attached to the input signal to a file. The measured profiles are saved to a file using the popular OptiBPM format. Free Space Optics • FSO Channel: A subsystem of two telescopes and the free space channel between them allows for simulation of free space optical links. MATLAB Library • MATLAB Component: The new MATLAB interface was extended to include multimode and time-driven signals. Users can design their own components using transverse mode profiles from optical signals in space or frequency domain. Visualizers • Spectrum Analyzers: Extended to include the calculation of power spectral density, it can also be scaled to accommodate the impedance parameter for analog systems. Optical Time Domain Visualizer: A new parameter allows for disabling the calculation of signal chirp and phase, saving memory when calculating signals with large bandwidth. WDM Analyzers: A new parameter allows the user to extend the scan range of the analyzer to search for signals based on peak excursion and threshold. BER Analyzer: A new 2D graph interface allows for faster plot generation of eye diagrams. • • • Optimizations • Gain FFr Optimization: A new gain flattening filter optimization was included with OptiSystem. The user can set the filter optimization range, tolerances for minimum and maximum filter transmission values and tolerance. It allows for faster convergence than general-purpose optimization methods. Graphical User Interface Improvements • • Project Auto Backup: A new auto backup feature, transparent to the user, allows for saving OptiSystem projects in a system or user defined folder. Report Page: Users can save the 2D graph settings for report page within OptiSystem project files. 5 WHAT’S NEW IN OPTISYSTEM 5.0 Application and Validation Projects Additional applications and validation projects were added to the OptiSystem: • • • • • Active Mode Locked Laser: Simulation of an active mode-locked fiber laser using an erbium-doped fiber Modulation schemes: Tutorial that demonstrates Manchester and PAM coding/decoding. Passive Optical Networks (PON): Simulation of a passive optical network considering the effect of Rayleigh backscattering and using 2 wavelengths. Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer: Simulation of an optical demultiplexer using semiconductor optical amplifiers in a fiber loop. DFE Application: Application of the 'Electronic Equalizer' component of OptiSystem. The equalizer estimates the filter taps coefficients for the FFE and DFE stages using a LMS algorithm. Free Space Optics: An implementation of a project with a free space optical link operating at 1.25 GB/s. IIR Filters: A project that describes the setup for the 'Low Pass IIR Filter' component. It demonstrates the same filter transfer function using poles and zeros, frequency domain and Z domain. Add/Drop Multiplexer: An example featuring a four wavelength, configurable, add and drop multiplexer. • • • 6 FEATURES INTRODUCED IN OPTISYSTEM 4.1 Features introduced in OptiSystem 4.1 Dynamic Er-Yb Codoped Fiber A new dynamic model of a double clad Er-Yb co-doped fiber, allows for the simulation of transient characteristics of amplifiers and lasers. Brillouin Effect A new Stimulated Brillouin Scattering numerical engine as a strong addition to OptiSystem bidirectional fiber models, including Yb and Er-Yb codoped fibers. Doped Fiber Nonlinearities Fiber non-linear effects including Four-Wave Mixing, Stimulated Brillouin Scattering, Self-Phase Modulation, Cross-Phase Modulation, and Stimulated Raman Scattering are all included as options to the Yb and Er-Yb codoped fiber models. Time-Driven Directly Modulated Lasers OptiSystem laser models now support electrical signals as individual samples or timedriven signals. It facilitates the design of pump and feedback controllers to suppress transient effects in fiber amplifiers and lasers. BER Analyzer The evaluation of bit error rate from optically amplified systems, where the noise distribution at the receiver is known to be non-Gaussian, can be easily accomplished with OptiSystem. The new BER Analyzer can display histograms and probability plots, and includes three additional BER estimators based on the noncentral Chi-Square distribution. Analog CATV Design New directly modulated laser measured configuration parameter allows users to choose between analog or digital modulation. Noise equivalent bandwidth parameter in electrical amplifiers facilitates entering data from measurements. 7 FEATURES INTRODUCED IN OPTISYSTEM 4.1 8 Introduction Optical communication systems are increasing in complexity on an almost daily basis. The design and analysis of these systems, which normally include nonlinear devices and non-Gaussian noise sources, are highly complex and extremely time-intensive. As a result, these tasks can now only be performed efficiently and effectively with the help of advanced new software tools. OptiSystem is an innovative optical communication system simulation package that designs, tests, and optimizes virtually any type of optical link in the physical layer of a broad spectrum of optical networks, from analog video broadcasting systems to intercontinental backbones. OptiSystem is a stand-alone product that does not rely on other simulation frameworks. It is a system level simulator based on the realistic modeling of fiber-optic communication systems. It possesses a powerful new simulation environment and a truly hierarchical definition of components and systems. Its capabilities can be extended easily with the addition of user components, and can be seamlessly interfaced to a wide range of tools. A comprehensive Graphical User Interface (GUI) controls the optical component layout and netlist, component models, and presentation graphics (see Figure 1 on page 16). The extensive library of active and passive components includes realistic, wavelength-dependent parameters. Parameter sweeps allow you to investigate the effect of particular device specifications on system performance. Created to address the needs of research scientists, optical telecom engineers, system integrators, students, and a wide variety of other users, OptiSystem satisfies the demand of the booming photonics market for a powerful and easy-to-use optical system design tool. OptiSystem is also available in two additional configurations: • • Amplifier Edition Multimode Edition 9 INTRODUCTION The features included in each of the these configurations are listed below. Simulation environment OptiSystem Multimode Edition • • • • • • OptiSystem Amplifer Edition • • • • • • OptiSystem Layout Editor Report Page Scripting capabilities MATLAB interface Parameter Optimization Export to OptiPerformer • • • • • • Component libraries OptiSystem Multimode Edition OptiSystem Amplifer Edition OptiSystem Single Mode Fibers Multimode Fibers CATV EDA Co-simulation Multimode Components Doped Fibers Waveguide Amplifiers SOA Amplifiers Raman Amplifiers • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 10 INTRODUCTION Benefits • • • • • • • Rapid, low-cost prototyping Global insight into system performance Straightforward access to extensive sets of system characterization data Automatic parameter scanning and optimization Assessment of parameter sensitivities aiding design tolerance specifications Dramatic reduction of investment risk and time-to-market Visual representation of design options and scenarios to present to prospective customers Applications OptiSystem allows for the design automation of virtually any type of optical link in the physical layer, and the analysis of a broad spectrum of optical networks, from longhaul systems to MANs and LANs. OptiSystem’s wide range of applications include: • • • • • • • • • • Optical communication system design from component to system level at the physical layer CATV or TDM/WDM network design Passive optical networks (PON) based FTTx Free space optic (FSO) systems Radio over fiber (ROF) systems SONET/SDH ring design Transmitter, channel, amplifier, and receiver design Dispersion map design Estimation of BER and system penalties with different receiver models Amplified system BER and link budget calculations 11 INTRODUCTION Main features The main features of the OptiSystem interface include: Feature Component Library Description To be fully effective, component modules must be able to reproduce the actual behavior of the real device and specified effects according to the selected accuracy and efficiency. The OptiSystem Component Library includes hundreds of components, all of which have been carefully validated in order to deliver results that are comparable with real life applications. The OptiSystem Component Library allows you to enter parameters that can be measured from real devices. It integrates with test and measurement equipment from different vendors. OptiSystem allows you to employ specific Optiwave software tools for integrated and fiber optics at the component level: OptiAmplifier, OptiBPM, OptiGrating, WDM_Phasar, and OptiFiber. OptiSystem handles mixed signal formats for optical and electrical signals in the Component Library. OptiSystem calculates the signals using the appropriate algorithms related to the required simulation accuracy and efficiency. In order to predict the system performance, OptiSystem calculates parameters such as BER and Q-Factor using numerical analysis or semi-analytical techniques for systems limited by inter symbol interference and noise. Advanced visualization tools produce OSA Spectra, signal chirp, eye diagrams, polarization state, constellation diagrams and much more. Also included are WDM analysis tools listing signal power, gain, noise figure, and OSNR per channel. You can select component ports to save the data and attach monitors after the simulation ends. This allows you to process data after the simulation without recalculating. You can attach an arbitrary number of visualizers to the monitor at the same port. To make a simulation tool flexible and efficient, it is essential to provide models at different abstraction levels, including the system, subsystem, and component levels. OptiSystem features a truly hierarchical definition of components and systems, enabling you to employ specific software tools for integrated and fiber optics at the component level, and allowing the simulation to be as detailed as the desired accuracy dictates. Measured components Integration with Optiwave Software Tools Mixed signal representation Quality and performance algorithms Advanced visualization tools Data monitors Hierarchical simulation with subsystems 12 INTRODUCTION Feature User-defined components Powerful Script language Description You can incorporate new components based on subsystems and user-defined libraries, or use co-simulation with a third party tool such as MATLAB. You can enter arithmetical expressions for parameters and create global parameters that can be shared between components and subsystems using standard VB Script language. The script language can also manipulate and control OptiSystem, including calculations, layout creation and post-processing when using the script page. The Calculation Scheduler controls the simulation by determining the order of execution of component modules according to the selected data flow model. The main data flow model that addresses the simulation of the transmission layer is the Component Iteration Data Flow (CIDF). The CIDF domain uses run-time scheduling, supporting conditions, data-dependent iteration, and true recursion. You can create many designs using the same project file, which allows you to create and modify your designs quickly and efficiently. Each OptiSystem project file can contain many design versions. Design versions are calculated and modified independently, but calculation results can be combined across different versions, allowing for comparison of the designs. A fully customizable report page allows you to display any set of parameters and results available in the design. The produced reports are organized into resizable and moveable spreadsheets, text, 2D and 3D graphs. It also includes HTML export and templates with pre-formatted report layouts. Simulations can be repeated with an iterated variation of the parameters. OptiSystem can also optimize any parameter to minimize or maximize any result or can search for target results. You can combine multiple parameter sweeps and multiple optimizations. For any given system topology and component specification scenario, a full OptiSystem project can be encrypted and exported to OptiPerformer. OptiPerformer users can then vary any parameter within defined specification ranges, and observe resulting system effects via detailed graphics and reports. OptiSystem provides a cost analysis table of the system being designed, arranged by system, layout or component. Cost data can be exported to other applications or spreadsheets. State-of-the-art calculation data-flow Multiple layouts Report page Parameter sweeps and optimizations OptiPerformer Bill of materials 13 INTRODUCTION 14 QUICK START Quick Start This section describes how to load a design, run a simulation, edit local and global parameters, and obtain results. The most efficient way to become familiar with OptiSystem is to complete the lessons in the Tutorials, where you learn how to use the software by solving problems. Note: For the users of the Amplifier Edition of OptiSystem we recommend to follow Lesson 7: Optical Amplifiers - Designing optical fiber amplifiers and fiber lasers, and for the users of the Multimode Edition of OptiSystem we recommend to follow Lesson 8: Optical Systems - Working with multimode components. Both lessons are available in the OptiSystem tutorials book. Starting OptiSystem To start OptiSystem, perform the following action. Action • From the Start menu, select Programs > Optiwave Software> OptiSystem 5 > OptiSystem. OptiSystem loads and the graphical user interface appears (see Figure 1). 15 QUICK START Figure 1 OptiSystem graphical user interface (GUI) 16 QUICK START Main parts of the GUI The OptiSystem GUI contains the following main windows: • • Project layout Dockers — — — Component Library Project Browser Description • Status Bar Project layout The main working area where you insert components into the layout, edit components, and create connections between components (see Figure 2). Figure 2 Project layout window 17 QUICK START Dockers Use dockers, located in the main layout, to display information about the active (current) project: — — — Component Library Project Browser Description Component Library Access components to create the system design (see Figure 3). Figure 3 Component Library window Project Browser Organize the project to achieve results more efficiently, and navigate through the current project (see Figure 4). Figure 4 Project Browser window 18 QUICK START Description Display detailed information about the current project (see Figure 5). Figure 5 Description window Status Bar Displays project calculation progress information, useful hints about using OptiSystem, and other help. Located at the bottom of the Project Layout window. Figure 6 Status Bar 19 QUICK START Loading a sample file To load a sample file, perform the following procedure. Step 1 2 Action From the File menu, select Open. In Samples > Introductory Tutorials, select Quick Start Direct Modulation.osd. The Direct Modulation sample file appears in the Main layout (see Figure 7). Figure 7 Direct Modulation sample file The transmitter is built using a direct laser modulation scheme, and consists of the following components: • Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence Generator: Sends the bit sequence to the NRZ Pulse Generator. The pulses modulate the Laser Measured. The Photodetector PIN receives the optical signal attenuated by the Optical Attenuator. The Low Pass Bessel Filter filters the electrical signal. Optical Spectrum Analyzer: Displays the modulated optical signal in the frequency domain • 20 QUICK START • • • Optical Time Domain Visualizer: Displays the modulated optical signal in the time domain. Oscilloscope Visualizer: Displays the electrical signal after the PIN in time domain. BER Analyzer: Measures the performance of the system based on the signal before and after the propagation. Note: More than one visualizer can be attached to a component output. Running a simulation To run a simulation, perform the following procedure. Step 1 Action From the File menu, select Calculate (see Figure 8). The OptiSystem Calculations dialog box appears (see Figure 9). Figure 8 File menu 21 QUICK START Figure 9 OptiSystem Calculations dialog box 2 In the OptiSystem Calculations dialog box, click the Run button (see Figure 9). The results appear in the Calculation Output window. The calculation output appears in the Calculation Output window, and the simulation results appear below the components that were included in the simulation. 22 QUICK START Displaying results from a visualizer To view the simulation results, perform the following action. Action • Double-click a visualizer in the Project layout to view the graphs and results that the simulation generates (see Figure 10). Figure 10 Optical Time Domain Visualizer results 23 QUICK START Component parameters Viewing and editing component parameters Double-click a component to view and edit the parameters for the component. To view the properties for Laser Measured, perform the following action. Action • In the Project layout, double-click the Laser Measured component. The Laser Measured Properties dialog box appears. Figure 11 Component parameters – Laser Measured 24 QUICK START Component parameters are organized by categories. Laser Measured has seven parameter categories, each represented by a tab in the dialog box (see Figure 11). • • • • • • • Main Measurements Physical Initial estimate Simulation Noise Random numbers Each category has a set of parameters. Parameters have the following properties: • • • • • Disp Name Value Units Mode The first category in the Laser Measured dialog box is Main. You can enter the signal Frequency and Power using the Main tab. The first parameter in the Main category is Disp. When you select a check box beside a parameter listed in the Disp column, the parameter value appears under the component in the Project layout. For example, if you select the Frequency and Power check boxes in the Disp column, these parameter values appear in the Project layout (see Figure 12). Figure 12 Laser Measured with displayed parameter values Each parameter can have a value in the columns Name, Value, Units, and Mode. Some parameters can have different units. For example, you can select the Frequency parameter to be in Hz, THz, or nm. When you change your unit selection, the conversion is automatic (see Figure 13). 25 QUICK START Figure 13 Choosing parameter values 26 QUICK START Editing parameters To edit the NRZ Pulse Generator parameters, perform the following procedure.‘ Step 1 2 Action Double-click the NRZ Pulse Generator in the Project layout. The NRZ Pulse Generator Properties dialog box appears (see Figure 14). Click the Simulation tab. Figure 14 Laser NRZ Pulse Generator simulation options 27 QUICK START For the Sample rate parameter, the Mode is Script (see Figure 15). This parameter will be evaluated as an arithmetic expression. The Sample rate parameter of the Laser Measured component also refers to a Global parameter with the same name. Figure 15 Scripted parameters 28 QUICK START Editing visualizer parameters To access the parameters for the Optical Spectrum Analyzer, perform the following procedure. Step 1 Action Right-click the Optical Spectrum Analyzer. A shortcut menu appears (see Figure 16). Figure 16 Shortcut menu Select Component Properties. The Optical Spectrum Analyzer Properties dialog box appears (see Figure 17). 29 QUICK START Figure 17 Optical Spectrum Analyzer Properties dialog box 30 QUICK START Global parameters The global parameters are common to all OptiSystem simulations. (See Appendix A: Global Parameters for more information on global parameters.) In this particular case, you indirectly define the simulation time window, the number of samples, and the sample rate using three parameters: • • • Bit rate Bit sequence length Number of samples per bit These parameters are used to calculate the Time window, Sample rate, and Number of samples. • • • Time window = Sequence length * 1/Bit rate = 256 * 1 / 10e9 = 25.6 ns Number of samples = Sequence length * Samples per bit = 32768 samples Sample rate = Number of samples / Time window = 1.28 THz The time window of the simulation is 25.6 ns. 32768 samples will be generated by each component, and the signal bandwidth is 1.28 THz. OptiSystem shares the parameter Time window with all components. This means that each component works with the same time window. However, each component can work with different sample rates or number of samples (see Figure 18). 31 QUICK START Figure 18 Global parameters values 32 QUICK START Editing global parameters To edit global parameters, perform the following procedure. Step 1 2 Action Double-click in the Project layout. The Layout 1 Parameters dialog box appears (see Figure 18). Select or clear global parameters as required. These parameters can be accessed by any component using the script mode. The NRZ Pulse Generator refers by default to the global parameter Sample rate using script mode (see Figure 19). The Low Pass Bessel Filter has the Cutoff parameter frequency as 0.75 * Bit rate. In this case, Bit rate is a global parameter (see Figure 20). Figure 19 NRZ Pulse Generator properties 33 QUICK START Figure 20 Low Pass Bessel Filter properties 34 QUICK START Using the Layout Editor In the following example, you will modify a design that you create. You will change the laser modulation scheme from direct to external modulation by replacing some of the components in the design and adding components from the Component Library. To use the Layout Editor, perform the following procedure. Step 1 Action To delete the Laser Measured component, select the Laser Measured component in the Project layout and press the Delete key. The Laser Measured component is deleted from the layout. From the Component Library, select Default > Transmitters Library > Optical Sources. Drag the CW Laser to the Project layout (see Figure 21). Note: The autoconnect feature automatically connects components in the Project layout. If connections are not made automatically, see “Connecting components manually” on page 37. Figure 21 CW Laser added to Main Layout 2 3 35 QUICK START 4 5 6 From the Component Library, select Default > Transmitters Library > Optical Modulators. Drag the Mach-Zehnder Modulator to the Project layout (see Figure 22). Place the Mach-Zehnder Modulator in the Project layout so the following connections are generated: a. NRZ Pulse Generator output port to the Mach-Zehnder modulation input port b. CW Laser output port to the Mach-Zehnder Modulator Carrier input port c. Mach-Zehnder Modulator output port to the Optical Attenuator input port Figure 22 Connecting components 7 Connect the Mach-Zehnder Modulator output port to the Optical Spectrum Analyzer input port and to the Optical Time Domain Visualizer input port (see Figure 23). 36 QUICK START Figure 23 Mach-Zehnder Modulator connected to visualizers 8 9 10 From the File menu, select Calculate. The OptiSystem Calculations dialog box appears. Click the Run button. The results appear in the Calculation Output window. To view the graphs and results, double-click on the visualizers (see Figure 25 and Figure 26 for examples of visualizer results). Connecting components manually To connect components using the layout tool, perform the following procedure. Step 1 Action Place the cursor over the initial port. The cursor changes to the rubber band cursor (chain link) (see Figure 24). A tool tip appears that indicates the type of signal that is available on this port. Click and drag to the port to be connected. The ports are connected. Note: You can only connect output to input ports and vice versa. Figure 24 Rubber Band cursor 2 37 QUICK START Figure 25 Visualizer results — OSA example 38 QUICK START Figure 26 Visualizer results — BER example Saving the design and closing OptiSystem To save the design and close OptiSystem, perform the following procedure. Step 1 2 Action From the File menu, select Save. The Quick Start Direct Modulation.osd design is saved. From the File menu, select Exit. OptiSystem closes. 39 QUICK START 40 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Appendix A: Global Parameters Opening the global parameters dialog To open the global parameters dialog, perform the following action. Action • OR • Select Layout > Parameters from the Menu tool bar. The Layout Parameters dialog opens (see Figure 27). Double-click in the Project layout window. The Layout Parameters dialog opens (see Figure 27). Editing global parameters To edit global parameters, perform the following procedure. Step 1 2 Action Double-click in the Project layout. The Layout Parameters dialog box appears (see Figure 27). Select or clear global parameters as required. 41 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Figure 27 Layout Parameters dialog 42 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS When you create a new design, you must define the global simulation parameters. These parameters are critical to the simulation. They show the speed, accuracy, and memory requirements for a particular simulation during the system design stage. It is important to understand what the global parameters are, because they have an impact on all the components that use these parameters (see Figure 28). Figure 28 Global parameters relationships Time spacing = 1 / Sample rate = Time window / Number of samples Frequency spacing - 1 / Time window - Sample rate / Number of samples Time window = Sequence length * Bit period - Sequency length / Bit rate Number of samples - Sequence length * Samples per bit - Time window * Sample rate 43 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Simulation parameters Figure 29 Simulation parameters Simulation window Specifies the setup mode for entering the parameters that define the main simulation parameters: • Set bit rate: Allows you to enter the Bit rate. This is the default mode — you can easily set up the simulation using typical parameters such as Bit rate, Sequence length, and Samples per bit. Set time window: Allows you to enter the Time window value Set sample rate: Allows you to enter the Sample rate • • The parameter Bit rate recalculates based on these parameters. 44 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Reference bit rate If this parameter is enabled, when you select Set time window or Set sample rate in the Simulation window, it will find the closest Time window or Sample rate without changing the Bit rate. Bit rate The value of the global bit rate is in bits per second. All components can access this parameter (see Figure 30). The global bit rate can affect components such as Bit sequence generators because components that require this parameter use is as a default value. An expression relative to this bit rate value is used to define the default value for the bandwidth or cutoff frequency of most electrical filters. When you change this global parameter, you can change the bit rate setting of all modules in the design simultaneously. Figure 30 Global parameter Bit rate Bit rate 45 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Time window Specifies in seconds the Time window of the simulation. OptiSystem shares the parameter Time window with all components. This means that each component works with the same Time window. Since the Time window defines the frequency spacing in the frequency domain, the sampled signal will always have the same frequency spacing. This parameter is best expressed in terms of the sequence length and the bit rate used during the simulation. It affects all components. Sample rate Specifies the frequency simulation window or simulation bandwidth in Hz (see Figure 31). It can affect components such as pulse generators and optical sources that generate signals at different sample rates. It is often convenient to operate all modules in the design at the same sample rate. This can be done easily by using this global parameter. The default parameter for all components requiring sample rate is referred to as the global sample rate. When you change this global parameter, you can change the sample rate setting of all modules in the design simultaneously. Figure 31 Global parameter Sample rate 46 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Sequence length The length of the bit sequence in number of bits. It must be a power of two. Figure 32 Global parameter Sequence length Sequence length Samples per bit Number of samples for bit used to discretize the sampled signals. It must be a power of two. Number of samples This read-only parameter shows the number of samples calculated by the product of Sequence length and Samples per bit. 47 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Figure 33 Global parameter iterations 48 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Signals parameters Figure 34 Global parameters Signals 49 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Iterations Number of signal blocks generated by each simulation. It mainly affects transmitters and components used in bidirectional simulations and in network ring design. By increasing the parameter iterations a component will repeat the previous calculation until the number of calculations is equal to the iterations. Refer to the tutorial lesson: Working with multiple iterations. Initial Delay This parameter forces a component to generate a null signal at each output port. It affects all components and it is mainly used in bidirectional simulations. The user does not have to add delays at the component input ports if using this parameter. Refer to the tutorial lesson: Working with multiple iterations. Parameterized Defines whether the signal output will be sampled signals (disabled) or parameterized signals (enabled). It can affect components such as optical sources and optical pulse generators. 50 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Noise parameters Convert noise bins Selects whether noise within a sampled band's frequency range is added to the sampled signal or represented separately as noise bins. The default value is disabled, which means the noise propagate is separated from the signals. It can affect the Erbium doped fiber amplifiers and the photo detectors. Figure 35 Global parameters Noise 51 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Spatial Effects Parameters The spatial effects parameters affect the components that generate spatial modes, where the discretization space and the level of the discretization should be defined. The number of points per spatial mode is defined as the product of the number of points in the X and Y coordinates. Figure 36 Global spatial effects parameters Space Width X This is the space for the X coordinate. Space Width Y This is the space for the Y coordinate. 52 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Grid Spacing Width X The grid spacing for the X coordinate. The space width divided by the grid spacing gives the number of points in the X coordinate. Grid Spacing Width Y The grid spacing for the Y coordinate. The space width divided by the grid spacing gives the number of points in the Y coordinate Signal Tracing Parameters OptiSystem allows for fast estimation of power and noise at each output port. This estimation is calculated every time a signal is sent to the component output port. The signal tracing parameters allow the user to control the calculation and presentation of the results. Figure 37 Global signal tracing parameters 53 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Calculate Signal Tracing Defines if the signal will be traced. Power Unit The units used to display the results (dBm, W or mW). Frequency Unit The units used to display the results (Hz, m, THZ or nm). Decimal Places The number of decimal places to use when displaying the results. Sensitivity The minimum output power that the calculation can detect. Resolution The spectral resolution bandwidth of the calculation. Calculate Noise Floor Defines if the noise floor will be calculated using interpolation. This is an important parameter when the noise is added to the signal. Interpolation Offset The interpolation offset from the signal channel center frequency used to estimate the noise floor. 54 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Signal representation To make the simulation tool more flexible and efficient, it is essential that it provides models at different abstraction levels, including the system, subsystem, and component levels. OptiSystem features a hierarchical definition of components and systems, allowing you to employ specific software tools for integrated and fiber optics in the component level and allowing the simulation to go as deep as the desired accuracy requires. Different abstraction levels imply different signal representations. The signal representation must be as complete as possible in order to allow efficient simulation. There are five types of signals in the signal library: Signal Binary M-Ary Electrical Optical Any Type Connection color Red Dark Red Blue Green Dark Green Figure 38 Signal types and connections OptiSystem handles mixed signal formats in the Component Library for optical and electrical signals. It calculates the signals using different algorithms according to the desired simulation accuracy and efficiency. 55 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Binary signals Binary signals are generated by components such as bit sequence generators. Pulse generators in the Transmitters Library and digital switches in the Network Library use this signal as input data. A binary signal consists of a sequence of ones and zeros, or marks and spaces. The main property of the binary signal is the Bit rate (see Figure 39). Figure 39 Binary signal M-Ary Signals M-Ary signals are multilevel signals used for special types of coding, such as PAM, QAM, PSK, and DPSK. M-Ary signals are similar to the binary signals. However, MAry signals can have any level instead of only high (1) and low (0) levels, or marks and spaces. Refer to the digital modulation tutorial lessons. Electrical signals Electrical signals are generated by components such as pulse generators in the Transmitters Library and photodetectors in the Receivers Library. Electrical signals consist of the sampled signal waveform in time domain. The main properties of the electrical signal are the signal noise variances in the time domain and the noise power spectral densities in the frequency domain. When a pulse generator generates the electrical signal, there is no noise information with the signal because the signal is pure. If the electrical signal is generated by a photodetector, there are different sources of noise, some of which are time dependent and must be characterized by the time variance (for example, shot noise). Some of them are given as power spectral density (for example, thermal noise). The electrical signal creates the noise information according to the properties and the number of noise sources in the component (see Figure 40). 56 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Figure 40 Electrical signal - noise variance - PSD If the electrical signal is filtered, the noise PSD is affected immediately because the PSD is filtered based on the filter transfer function in frequency domain. If the noise is also characterized by the noise variance, it is not affected immediately. The information about the filter transfer function is saved in the frequency domain as a property of the noise. As a result, you can have a cascade of electrical filters and the electrical signal will keep track of the equivalent transfer function of the filters. When using the noise variance for calculation of the signal noise, the information about the filters will be used to generate the equivalent noise bandwidth and will be applied to the noise variance (see Figure 41). Electrical signals can also be represented by individual samples, allowing for time driven simulations. In order to simulate using individual samples the user should explicitly add the component “Convert to Individual Electrical Samples" into the layout. The signal and noise at the input signal will be added and converted into multiple samples. The number of samples is defined by the global parameter Number of samples. Refer to the tutorial lesson: Working with individual samples. 57 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Figure 41 Filtering electrical signal 58 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Optical signals Optical signals are generated by components such as lasers in the Transmitters Library. Optical signals accommodate different signal representations: • • • Sampled signals Parameterized signals Noise bins Figure 42 Mixed optical signal representation - Frequency domain Sampled signals Optical signals can accommodate any arbitrary number of signal bands. In the simplest case, there is one single frequency band when a single, continuous frequency band represents the waveforms of all the modulated optical carriers. A single optical source (for example, CW Laser) produces a single frequency band. The band represents the complex sampled optical field of the signal in two polarizations. This type of optical signal is called a Sampled signal. When two or more Sampled signals are combined, the individual signals will join into a new sampled signal if their simulation bandwidths overlap, or they are kept separated if the simulation bandwidth does not overlap. The resulting signal is called Sampled signals — in this case, each sampled signal is propagated using a separate sampled optical field. Example Signals are generated in each laser and are combined in the multiplexer. After the multiplexer, the channels at frequencies 193.1 and 193.2 THz overlap, so they are added to the same band (see Figure 43). Sampled signals can also have spatial representation for the spatial modes. If you are using the multimode component library, the sampled signals will also have the spatial distribution of the signal power for both polarizations. 59 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Optical signals can also be represented by individual samples, allowing for timedriven simulations. In order to simulate using individual samples, the user should explicitly add the component "Convert to Individual Optical Samples" into the layout. Only sampled signals can be converted into individual samples. The number of individual samples is defined by the global parameter Number of samples. If the input signal has multiple channels, each channel will have an individual sample and center frequency, allowing for WDM and Time-driven simulations. Refer to the tutorial lesson: Working with individual samples. Figure 43 Overlapping channel frequencies Parameterized signals The signal description based on the Sampled signals covers the majority of physical phenomena affecting the system design. When designing a system where the power budget analysis and the fast signal-to-noise ratio estimations are the main performance evaluation results, signal channels can be approximated by their average power, assuming that the detailed waveform of their data streams are not important. One application example is the investigation of the transmission behavior of the central channels in dense WDM systems, or an estimation of the EDFA performance in the steady-state regime. Parameterized Signals are time-averaged descriptions of the sampled signals based on the information about the optical signal (for example, Average power, Central frequency, and Polarization state). 60 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Example Signals are generated in each laser using parameterized representation and combined in the multiplexer. Signals are represented by power and frequency (see Figure 44). Figure 44 Signals combined in the multiplexer In the typical simulation of optical amplifiers in a WDM system, the model of an EDFA uses the static solution of the rate equations. Each WDM channel is a sampled signal with the information about the signal waveform (for example, center frequency, sample rate and a large number of samples). The WDM channels are close to each other, and can be in separate channels or together in the same band using a total field approach. The center frequency of the signal pump is far from the signal channels, making it inefficient to include the pump in the same band as the signal channels. There is no information content in the bandwidth range between the channels and pumps. The signal pump is also a CW signal, and can be represented as a parameterized signal by such statistical parameters as its power and wavelength. The other type of signal is the ASE generated by the amplifier, which can also be represented in an alternative way by the power spectral density of the ASE bandwidth instead of the sampled signal. OptiSystem separates noise and signals in the spectrum, describing the noise by modifying the parameterized signals to another signal representation — Noise bins. 61 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Noise bins Noise bins represent the noise by the average spectral density in two polarizations using a coarse spectral resolution. The resolution can be adapted to maintain the accuracy of the simulation. The main advantage of using Noise bins is to cover the wide spectrum of the optical signals or to represent the noise outside the Sample signals bandwidths. The noise bin representation is similar to the parameterized signals, including the polarization. The main difference is that noise bins are defined by the noise power density and the bandwidth of each noise bin instead of by the average power (see Figure 45). Figure 45 Noise bins generated by EDFA 62 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Noise Bins can be created whenever there is a source of optical noise, such as optical amplifiers. You define the initial resolution and bandwidth of the noise (see Figure 46). Figure 46 Mixed signals generated by EDFA 63 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS During transmission, the widths of the noise bins are adapted automatically to describe the filtering of the noise with a specified precision. The noise bins shrink in width as they propagate through the simulation in order to maintain the discretization accuracy (see Figure 47). Figure 47 Filtering noise bins – adaptive band of each bin 64 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS Notes: 65 APPENDIX A: GLOBAL PARAMETERS 66 Optiwave 7 Capella Court Ottawa, Ontario, K2E 8A7, Canada Tel.: 1.613.224.4700 Fax: 1.613.224.4706 E-mail: support@optiwave.com URL: www.optiwave.com ...
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