POLS Chapter 3 Part 1.docx - 1 Understanding Democracy...

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Understanding Democracy: Liberalism Chapter 3 (Pages 49-56)Political Ideologies Political ideology: Interrelated ideas and beliefs about government, society, the economyand human nature that inspire and affect political action Certain identifiable logic Attempt to explain how the world/society works oHow the world/society should work Propose a means of political action to achieve their objectives oSome challenge and seek to transform existing basic power arrangements, some justify order History of Ideologies Enlightenment:intellectual movement from the mid 18thcentaury, emphasizing the power of human reason to understand and improve the world oshift from traditional religious beliefs toward optimistic belief in power of reason making the world better ohumans could create a better society on Earth rather than waiting for the life after death promised by religionoReaction against religious view that there are limits to human ability to order + explain the world Human sin is unavoidable Fundamentalist: world is not totally understood via reason, much religious intervention Negative Side of Ideology Ideologyused to describe efforts to develop science of ideas, can be used negatively oMarx: ideology was instrument of ruling class to justify harsh realities of capitalistPeople treat texts of ideology as absolute truth and don’t consider criticisms, can be simplistic Positive side: coherence, consistency and direction to a person’s political thinking oDifferent ideas about the common good and how it can be achievedLeft and Right Those who favoured old order sat to right of chairman, those who opposed absolute authority sat to left Left:Communism-> Socialism-> Reform Liberalism-> Classical Liberalism-> Conservatism-> Fascism: RightLeft:opursuit of greater social and economic equalityooppose state support for religious institutions and favor laws based on universal human rights rather than traditional morality Right:osee inequality as natural feature of human society 1
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