feb2004 - DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete...

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Unformatted text preview: DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the ONE that is BEST in each case and blacken the appropriate space on the Scantron sheet. 1. Sarah is on vacation in the mountains. The atmospheric pressure in the Village she is Visiting is 720 mmHg. If her transpulmonary pressure is 4 mmHg then what is her intrapleural pressure? (A) 716 mmHg (B) 724 mmHg (C) 728 mmHg (D) 730 mmHg (E) 736 mmHg 2. Which of the following concerning pulmonary surfactant is correct? (A) It is a lipoprotein (B) It is secreted by type I alveolar cells (C) It will decrease surface tension in the lungs causing a decrease in lung compliance (D) It is produced in the lungs only after the baby is born (E) It is over produced in cases of pulmonary fibrosis causing a decrease in compliance 3. Franco weighs 300 lbs and has a respiratory rate of 25 breaths per minute. His tidal volume is 500 ml and his Vital capacity is 3000 m1. What is his alveolar ventilation? (A) 12.5 L/ml (B) 2,000 ml/min (C) 5,000 ml/min (D) 5,100 ml/rnin (E) 2,500 ml/min DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the ONE that is BEST in each case and blacken the appropriate space on the Scantron sheet. 4. Which of the following statements about partial pressure of a gas is INCORRECT? (A) The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that one gas in a mixture of gases. (B) At sea level, the mixture of all the gases in the air we breathe exerts a pressure of 760 mmHg (C) 02 and C02 will move from areas of high partial pressure to low partial pressure (D) The partial pressure of 02 in the alveoli is less than the partial pressure of the alveolar C02 (E) In the tissue, 02 diffuses out of the blood and C02 diffuses into the blood down their partial pressure gradients. 5. Which of the following statements is correct concerning the transport of C02 in the blood? (A) C02 can be carried attached to hemoglobin (B) C02 can be carried as carbonic anhydrase (C) N 0 C02 remains in the blood after passing through the lungs (D) C02 can react with water to produce carbamino compounds (E) Both B and D are correct 6. Which of the following is INCORRECT? (A) Tidal volume is the volume of air entering or leaving the lungs during one breath at rest (B) Inspiratory reserve volume is the maximum amount of air that can enter the lungs above and beyond the tidal volume (C) Expiratory reserve volume is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume (D) Residual volume is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal expiration (E) Inspiratory capacity equals the tidal volume plus the vital capacity DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the ONE that is BEST in each case and blacken the appropriate space on the Scantron sheet. 7. Glomerular filtration rate (or GFR) is best defined as (A) the volume of blood passing through the glomerular capillaries per unit time (B) the proportion of all nephrons that are filtering the blood (C) the volume of blood cleared of a solute per unit time (D) the volume of filtrate formed per unit time (B) the volume of blood passing through the peritubular capillaries per unit time 8. Use what you need of the information below to calculate the 24 hour fractional excretion rate for solute X. Urine volume over 24 hours is 3 liters; plasma levels of solute X are 3 grams per liter; urine concentration of solute X equals 0.1 grams per liter. The fractional excretion rate for solute X is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 0.3% 300% 2% 3.3% 0.06% The Starling forces operating in glomerular capillaries differ from those that are operating in capillaries elsewhere in which E of the following ways? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Only two Starling forces are operative in glomerular capillaries. Capillaries elsewhere are made up of two cell layers whereas those in the glomerulus have only one layer of cells. The interstitium is highly expandable around glomerular capillaries. Capillary hydrostatic pressure is higher in glomerular capillaries. Glomerular capillaries have a lower net filtration pressure. DIRECTIONS: 10. 11. Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the ONE that is BEST in each case and blacken the appropriate space on the Scantron sheet. The Starling Forces across Dalton's capillaries are as follows: PC = 20mm Hg, P1: 2mm Hg, 7131 = 3 mm Hg, NC = 14mm Hg. Those across Ernie's capillaries are as follows: PC = 24mm Hg, P1: 2mm Hg, TEI = 4 mm Hg, TEC = 24mm Hg. Based on this information, which one of the following statements is correct? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Dalton's net filtration pressure favours fluid movement out of the capillary, whereas Ernie's net filtration pressure favours fluid movement into the capillary. Both men have net filtration pressures favouring fluid movement into the capillary Both men have net filtration pressures favouring fluid movement out of the capillary Dalton’s net filtration pressure favours fluid movement into the capillary, whereas Ernie's net filtration pressure is such that no fluid movement will take place in either direction. Dalton's net filtration pressure favours fluid movement out of the capillary, whereas Ernie's net filtration pressure is such that no fluid movement will take place in either direction. Which one of the following substances is not reabsorbed by proximal tubule cells? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) sodium water amino acids glucose hydrogen ions DIRECTIONS: In the following questions, answer: (A) If an INCREASE in the first results in an INCREASE in the second or if a DECREASE in the first results in a DECREASE in the second (B) If an INCREASE in the first results in a DECREASE in the second or if a DECREASE in the first result in an INCREASE in the second. (C) If changes in the first are NOT accompanied by changes in the second 12. 1. Volume of the lungs 2. Pressure inside the lungs 13. 1. Elastic tissue content 2. Compliance 14. 1. P02 in tissue 2. 02 attached to hemoglobin 15. 1. H+ concentration only in the blood 2. activity of the central chemoreceptors 16. 1. Bowman’s capsule hydrostatic pressure 2. net filtration pressure 17. 1. Blood levels of ADH 2. urine osmolality DIRECTIONS: On the diagram below, choose the structure (labeled A through E) that best matches the description. G - 18. responsible for the majority of sodium reabsorption 19. impermeable to water in diabetes insipidus 20. responsible for the majority of water reabsorption 21. impermeable to water DIRECTIONS: The following paired statements describe two entities that are to be compared in a quantitative sense. Answer: (a) If (a) is GREATER than (b) (b) If (b) is GREATER than (a) (c) If the two are EQUAL OR VERY NEARLY EQUAL 22. (a) the number of nephrons in a kidney (b) the number of collecting ducts in a kidney 23. (a) the osmolality of filtrate in the ascending loop of Henle (b) the osmolality of filtrate in the descending loop of Henle at the same level within the medulla as in (a) above DIRECTIONS: For each of the statements below, ONE or MORE of the completions given is correct. Answer (A) if only 1, 2 and 3 are correct (B) if only 1 and 3 are correct (C) if only 2 and 4 are correct (D) if only 5 is correct (E) if ALL are correct 24. Oxygen transport in the blood, 25. 26. S” is prima1i1y carried in red blood cells attached to hemoglobin can involve a reversible reaction with many blood proteins to produce several types of oxy—amino compounds. can include Oz dissolved in the plasma. can involve a reaction that requires carbonic anhydrase Frieda dares her little brother to breathe in and out as fast and as deep as he can. He hyperventilates and passes out. Which of the following explains why her little brother passed out? 99°F)!“ decreased C02 levels in the blood vasoconstriction of blood vessels decreased blood flow to the brain abnormally high 02 levels going to the brain Martin is exercising at his maximum intensity level on a treadmill. Which of the following will occur during expiration? PPN!‘ Expiration only involves the relaxation of the diaphragm The internal intercostal muscles contract The pressure in the lungs becomes lower than atmospheric pressure. Abdominal muscles contract. 27. 28. 29. DIRECTIONS SUMMARIZED A B C D E 1,2,3 1,3 2,4 4 only all are correct A patient that is admitted to the hospital has difficulty breathing and shows the following symptoms: Inhalation is easy Exhalation is difficult Pulmonary compliance is increased Which of the following would be correct? 1. Their lungs contain an abnormally large amount of elastic tissue in their walls. 2. pulmonary surfactant is not being produced 3. Fibrous scars have developed in the lungs 4. This person likely has emphysema Which of the following statements is/are correct? 1. Peripheral chemoreceptors are located in the aortic arch and carotid bodies. 2. Central chemoreceptors directly detect changes in blood C02 levels 3. Peripheral chemoreceptors are more sensitive to 02 than to C02 concentrations in the blood. 4. A large increase in blood 02 levels will initiate an increase in ventilation. If you eat a sodium rich meal accompanied by little or no water, which of the following is most likely to happen once the nutrients and electrolytes enter the bloodstream. blood levels of ADH will decline blood levels of atrial natiuretic factor will decline blood levels of angiotensinogen will decline the filtered load for sodium will rise Pump?“ DIRECTIONS SUMMARIZED A B C D E 1,2,3 1,3 2,4 4 only all are correct 30. The high osmolality of the medullary interstitium is important for Glucose reabsorption Potassium reabsorption Sodium reabsorption Water reabsorption 9W3”? A Minitest 111 Question Answers N \D 1 A 2 A (B,C,D get 0.5 marks) 3 C 4 D 5 A 6 E 7 D 8 E 9 D 10 C 11 E 12 B 13 B 14 A 15 C 16 B 17 A ' 18 A 19 D 20 A 21 E <22.» E 23 B 24 B 25 A 26 C 27 D 28 B D D DJ 0 ...
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feb2004 - DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete...

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