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phystut6 - TheHypothalamus AndrewMacDonald...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style The Hypothalamus  Andrew MacDonald  November 19th, 2009  [email protected] 
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What is the Hypothalamus? What is it? n The  hypothalmus  is a small  structure at the base of the  brain. What is it’s main function? n Its main function is to maintain  homeostasis  within in the body. Why is it physiologically relevant?  n It is a key player in the  endocrine system (hormone’s)  which are tightly associated with 
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Functions  of the  Hypothalamus n The hypothalamus serves numerous functions within the body.  Most of them  deal with homeostatic control (adaptive and survival behaviour). 1.  Control of the Autonomic Nervous  System (ANS) 2. Neuroendocrine Control (posterior pituitary gland, catecholamine release  from adrenal medulla) 3. Reproduction (behaviour and pituitary function) 4.  Water Balance and Exchange 5.  Sodium Balance and Exchange 6.  Body Energy Balance and Exchange (food Intake and metabolism) 7.  Drives and Emotions (e.g. feeding, attack) 8.  Circadian Rhythms 9.  Body Temperature Regulation IT IS GOOD TO KNOW ALL OF THESE FUNCTIONS!
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Hypothalamus and the ANS n The  hypothalamus  can regulate the ANS.  It is  the “head” structure in this function. n The ANS is extremely important in homeostatic  control of body functions n It has two divisions  n Parasympathetic (relaxation) Most ANS responses occur automatically and are not consciously  thought out.  Is this always the case?  No! Some visceral and glandular responses can  be learned and thus voluntarily controlled. 
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Autonomic Nervous System  The parasympathetic  division of the ANS exits at  the brain stem.
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