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chapter2 - Feldspar network silicate 2 types •...

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EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 2 - MINERALS Minerals are solid compounds made in nature 20 dominant minerals, we study 17 of them Common Minerals: (1) Silicates silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (tetra: four, tetrahedron: pyramid) Common Silicates: Ferromagnesium (dark) silicates Olivine: single tetrahedra bonded to Fe 2+ ,Mg 2+ ions Pyroxene: single chains of tetrahedra, 90 o cleavage, strong covalent bonding within chains, weak ionic bonding between chains Amphibole: double chains of tetrahedra, 120 o cleavage, strong covalent bonding within chains, weak ionic bonding between chains Biotite: (black mika) tetrahedra sheets with perfect basal cleavage Nonferromagnesium (light) silicates Muscovite: (white mica) perfect basal cleavage
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Unformatted text preview: Feldspar: network silicate, 2 types: • orthoclase (pink K feldspar) • plagioclase (Ca-Na felspar) ➢ Quartz silicate as well, all tetrahedra (SiO 2 ), no cleavage, hardness of 7 due to the only covalent bonding which is very strong (2) Non-Silicates ● Carbonates: metals bonded to (CO3) group ➢ calcite (CaCO3) ➢ dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2 (3) Minerals formed by Evaporation ● halite: NaCl, common salt, also used for chlorine and baking soda ● gypsum: CaSO4+2H2O (4) Ores of Metals: ● Hematite: Fe2O3 (iron ore) ● Sphalerite: ZnS (zinc ore) ● Galena: PbS (lead ore) ● Native minerals: Gold (Au), Silver (Ag) September 18, 09 1...
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