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Final Exam Information

Final Exam Information - 1 a i PhysicalForces ii...

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1) Nature of the Fossil Record a) Forces that Destroy Bone i) Physical Forces ii) Chemical Forces iii) Biological Agents b) Fossilization is promoted if an organism is sheltered from the forces of destruction, such  as dying near a body of water or in a cave c) Discovery of Fossil Bearing sites d) Several Biases in the Fossil Record i) Where Fossilization occurs  ii) Which species is Fossilized iii) Discovery of Fossil Sites 2) Geological Time Scale a) Protierzoic 4.6 BYA-570MYA b) Paleozoic 570mya-225mya c) Mesozoic 225mya-65mya d) Cenozoic 65mya-Present ******* i) Epochs of the Cenozoic*** (1) Paleocene 65mya-55mya (2) Eocene 55mya-34mya (3) Oligocene 34mya-23mya (4) Miocene 23mya-5mya (5) Pliocene 5mya-1.8mya
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(6) Pleistocene 1.8mya-10,000ya (7) Recent/Holocene 10,000ya-present 3) Dating Techniques a) Relative Dating i) Stratogrophy- Dating a specimen based on its position in the ground (1) Law of Super Position- upper sedimentary layers are younger than lower  sedimentary layers. ii) Biostratogrophy- (found correlation)- Dating of a specimen based on associated  animals, whose evolutionary histories are well known. iii) Paleomagnitism- Dating of a specimen based on shifts in the earth’s magnetic field iv) Fluorine Analysis- Fluorine testing done on the Piltdown Specimen had different  amounts of Fluorine in the mandible than in the cranium. b) Chromatic Techniques (absolute) i) Elements have isotope forms which releases radioactive energy to become stable.  The rate of discharge of radioactivity is called the Half-Life. Half-life is the period of  time for an Isotope to lose or discharge half of its radioactivity. ii) To estimate the age of a specimen you need to know two variables.  The amount of  Isotope in stable form and the half life of the Isotope c) Dating Techniques Cont.
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