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Unformatted text preview: The Caribbean The Crossroads Crossroads Africa, Europe and the Caribbean Africa, The Caribbean – 17th Century The Multi-Cultural Multi-Cultural Atlantic World Atlantic
Creation of system of Dominate and Creation Subordinate States Subordinate Produced Wealth for Europe Produced
Spain 689* (1500) 900 900 (1700) (1700) Portugal 638 854 France 727 986 Britain 762 1405 Dutch 754 2110 Italy 1,100 1,100 *per capita GDP given in 1990 international dollars dollars Retrospective – Churchill
“Our possession of the West Indies gave us the Our strength, the support, especially the wealth, the capital at a time when no other European nation possessed such a reserve which enabled us to come through the giant struggles of the Napoleonic Wars, the keen competition of commerce in the 18th and 19th centuries, and enabled us not only to acquire the appendages of possession which we have, but also to lay the foundation for that commercial and financial leadership with which, when the world was young, when everything outside Europe was underdeveloped, to make our great position in this world.” Contestation & Exploitation Contestation Underdeveloped Africa Underdeveloped
• “On the balance sheet, they On
place both the credits and the debits. The argument suggests that, on the one hand, colonial governments did much for the benefit of Africans and they developed Africa. It is our contention that this is completely false. Colonialism had only one hand – it was a one-armed bandit.” bandit.” Led to Movement of East Indians Led
• Post Emancipation • Large numbers of ast Large •
Indians Trinidad today
– – – – 41% African 40% Indian 17% mixed 2% Chinese, Middle 2% Eastern Eastern Colonizing Colonizing English-Speaking Caribbean English-Speaking Barbados Barbados Barbados Barbados
• 166 square miles: 14 166 •
wide, 22 long wide, Furthest east Furthest Marvelously suited to agriculture agriculture High Percentage of Women High
Males / 100 females Barbados: 1817 – 83.9; 1832 – 86.3 Jamaica: 1817 – 100.3; 1832 – 94.5 Demerara: 1817: 130.9; 1832 – 110.2 *first stop? *first Jamaica Jamaica Jamaica Jamaica
• Grander scale than Grander • Barbados Barbados bigger harbors, taller bigger mountains, wilder interior, “thoroughly disturbing.” disturbing.” Maroons: Blue Mtns / Cockpit Maroons: Pirates and Governors Pirates Sugar Plantation Triumphs Sugar Trinidad Trinidad Diversity Diversity • 1783 Cedula of 1783
Population Population History of West Indies - Hart History
• • • •
Lens: English-Speaking Caribbean Nationalism – recover manhood Independence University of the West Indies campuses
– – – Jamaica Barbados Barbados Trinidad Comparative Comparative
United States & Caribbean Caribbean and the U.S.
• Plantations larger in Caribbean: 20/100 • Absenteeism Absenteeism • By 1734 black population constituted By
90% of the total population 90% • Caribbean very low fertility rates Gender and the Caribbean Gender Complexity Complexity
• All these cultures had their own socially All
constructed ideas about gender roles & identity constructed • Huge changes wrought in the Atlantic initiated Huge changes in perceptions of gender changes • Major changes employ gender and gender Major images to construct power and hierarchies images ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2010 for the course HIST HIST-2626 taught by Professor Jeannechristensen during the Spring '10 term at University of Colombo.
- Spring '10