Atlantic Slave Trade (PowerPoint)

Atlantic Slave Trade (PowerPoint) - The Atlantic 1340-1500...

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Unformatted text preview: The Atlantic 1340-1500 1340-1500 Reasons Reasons • • • • • Dynamic Economy Centralizing monarchies Centralizing Crusading tradition Technology Psychological will • CHOICE? With more than 300 oceangoing vessels and a crew CHOICE? of nearly 30,000 men, Zheng He helped transform China into the region's, and perhaps the world's, 15th century superpower. • Ming Treasure Ship Shift and Expansion Shift From the Mediterranean To the Atlantic To • Developing the New World Developing • Involved peoples – West Africa – Every maritime European nation Every – Every colony in Atlantic • Integral and indispensable part of European Integral expansion expansion A New World New Centralizing Monarchies Centralizing Portugal Portugal Reconquista Reconquista Iberia 1492 Iberia Portugal & Africa Portugal • Royal house of Portugal • 1452 Pope Nicholas V issued the Dum 1452 Diversas granting the king of Portugal the right to reduce any “pagans and any other unbelievers" to hereditary slavery. Prince Henry 1394-1460 Prince • Participated in Participated crusade against Muslim Ceuta in 1415 1415 Order of Christ Order • Henry was Grand Henry • Master of the order Master Henry's avowed aim: Henry's extend the Holy Faith of Jesus Christ and bring it to all souls who wish to find salvation. Atlantic Sugar Atlantic • Sugar cane introduced by Henry • Madeira (1418), Azores (1427) • Prototype for New World plantations – – – Large land holdings Commercial/consumer crop Wholesale reliance on slave labor • First two characteristic of sugar production First in Mediterranean; third element new in Forts and Castles Forts Elmina Castle Elmina Traders Traders • Africans and Muslims • Lancados / Tangomãos Lancados • Genoese and some other Italians • Conversos African Slaves in Europe African Slavery in the Atlantic Slavery • August 8, 1444 ships landed in Portugal from August Africa (Arguin) Africa • [I]t “was a marvelous sight, for amongst them, [I]t were some white enough, fair enough, and well-proportioned; others were less white, like mulattoes, and others again were as black as Ethiops, and so ugly, both in features and in body, as almost to appear. . . the images of the lower hemisphere.” On Hand: Henry On • Gave thanks that he was saving so many souls for God. Gomes Eannes de Zurara Gomes • “What heart could be so hard as not to be pierced What with piteous feeling to see that company? For some kept their heads low, and their faces bathes in tears, looking one upon another. Others stood groaning very dolorously, looking up to the height of heaven, fixing their eyes upon it, crying loudly, as if asking help from the Father of nature; other struck their faces with the palms of their hands, throwing themselves at full length upon the ground; while other made lamentations in the manner of a dirge, after the custom of their country. . .” country. Africans in Europe: Dürer Africans • Presence of African Presence slaves not new but always small before fifteenth century fifteenth Numbers of Africans in Numbers Italy small Italy Portugal almost 3% of Portugal population • • Centralizing Monarchies Centralizing Spain Spain - Reconquista Reconquista • 1492 conquest of Grenada – both sides 1492 enslaved war prisoners • 1492 Christopher Columbus 1492 Columbus (1451 – 1506) Columbus • First transport First of slaves across Atlantic – Columbus: Native Americans to Seville (1493) Seville Asiento 1543-1834 1543-1834 • Contract to deliver slaves to Spanish Contract • • • • possessions possessions Prior to 1543 slaves for Old World Markets After 1543 – primarily to Atlantic World Portugal had Spanish asiento Portugal asiento Portugal under Spanish rule between 1580 and Portugal 1640 The Church The Popes Popes • 1453 Romanus Pontifex – if unoccupied land • • discovered could take; if occupied by nondiscovered Christians could take 1463 Pope Pius II declared baptized Africans should 1463 not be enslaved not 1492 Pope Alexander mediated Treaty of 1492 Tordesillas: divided Atlantic world between Spain and Portugal and Tradition Tradition • Terra Nullius – “Land Belonging to no • one” one” May be acquired through occupation Justification & Protest Justification Justification Justification • Fray Francisco de la Fray • Cruz (1779 – 1835) “The blacks are justly The captives by reason of the sins of their forefathers, because of sin God gave them that color.” color.” Warlike & indomitable • Protest Protest • Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas • Fray Domingo de Soto Fray • Fernão de Oliveira (1554) • Artolomé Frías de Albornoz (1570s) Debate at Valladolid 1550 Debate • Famous public debate Famous between Sepúlveda vs. Las Casas vs. • Las Casa theocentric Las Christian vs. Sepúveda’s Sepúveda’s humanism ...
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