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Unformatted text preview: African Experience African Exchange People for Wealth Exchange New Commodities New → new opportunities opportunities Trading slaves: Trading ‘Plan B’ ‘Plan Exchance Wealth for People Exchance Trade troublesome person for goods Trade goods for desirable person Goal: establish large community of people Outsiders → inside Outsiders inside Credit / Debt Credit Europeans offer trade goods on credit Foreclose on debts Foreclose Deepens Plan B Forced to sell what you wanted to keep – more Forced women and children women Escalation Acquire enough outsiders so don’t have to Acquire sell your own people sell ‘Specialists:’ → communities → new social Specialists:’ institutions institutions People flee and join refugee community → People betrayal betrayal Organize in new groups for defense → rise of new military states: Ashante, Dahomey of Procuring Slaves Procuring Drought – sell children to prevent starvation Judicial enslavement Kidnapping, private raids, military Kidnapping, enslavement Witchcraft accusations: Turns inward → Witchcraft caused by witch, then sold as slave caused Pattern of Transformation Initial contact – foreign slavers to Africans Initial with small number of people to sell with Luxury goods exchanged for more people Demand soared Demand War endemic War Drought intensified situation Paradox of Slave Trade Paradox Communities attempting to create extra Communities people in order to survive gradually come to survive by exporting surplus members and eventually not-so-surplus members eventually Impact of Slave Trade Impact Consequences: Africa/Africans Consequences:
Best estimate (Phillip Curtin): 15,400,000; Best does not include: does Those killed in wars to gain slaves March to the coast Waiting to be shipped Middle passage – estimate of loss here Middle 2,000,000 2,000,000 Experiencing the SlaveTrade Experiencing Social death → no community Social no Terror Violence and dislocation intense Violence Tended to last only generation in any one Tended area Impact of Atlantic Trade Absolute loss of population Reinforced African patriarchy Considerable movement of peoples Increased slavery within in Africa Altered customs and even laws Altered Accentuated new beliefs: witches Memories of Slave Trade Trade Memorial Plaque Witchcraft Ideologies Witchcraft Images of cannibalism/consumption Images Witches described as having two stomachs Witches and no heart and Economic witchcraft – invisible transfer of Economic money from one pocket to another money Witch gun - suspicion of western Witch technology technology Witchcraft Ideologies cont Witchcraft Witch city – cosmology of capitalism Kings seen to have power of witchcraft Protected from accusation if open-handed Accused of if accumulated wealth for self Imbangala (area east of Angola) – Imbangala embraced witchcraft embraced Witchcraft Outsider merchants seen as witches “A Portuguese would not be eligible to be Portuguese king because if he had a pig he would not divide it but keep it for a long time and he would go around and make demands and eat by himself.” eat Witchcraft / Slave Trade Witchcraft Timeless aspect of cosmology or context of Timeless trade in slaves? trade Assimilated pre-existing understandings or Assimilated produced by experience of slave trade by Not just way to know the world – actively Not creating and contributing to its constitution creating Continues into present – ‘development’ seen Continues as modern-day increase in witchcraft as ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2010 for the course HIST HIST-2626 taught by Professor Jeannechristensen during the Spring '10 term at University of Colombo.
- Spring '10