Colonizing the Caribbean (PowerPoint)

Colonizing the Caribbean (PowerPoint) - Colonizing the...

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Unformatted text preview: Colonizing the Caribbean Colonizing 1655-1692 Mercantile Ideology Mercantile • Belief that world’s monetary supply was Belief finite; goal: acquire the largest share finite; • Export more than you import Export • Protectionist Incursions • Caribbean peripheral for Spanish except as Caribbean protection for treasure ships • France – 1625 St Christopher, 1635 France Guadeloupe and Martinique, 1643 began to make settlements in western Hispaniola make Incursions Cont. Incursions • Dutch: Guyana 1616, Curacao 1634, Aruba Dutch: 1636 1636 • English: St. Christopher 1624, Barbados 1627, English: Nevis 1628, Montserrat and Antigua 1630, and Jamaica 1655 Jamaica Early Mercantile Wars Early • English vs. Dutch English – – Competition for control Atlantic trade 1652-54, 1664-67, 1672-75 • England vs. Spain – 1655-1657 – Acquisition of Jamaica • Empowerment of Pirates Pirates → Planters Planters Toward Stability Buccaneers Buccaneers • • • • Jamaica taken 1655 Middle of Spanish Caribbean Letters of Marque Letters Center of privateering and piracy Exploits Exploits • Recruit fighters; booty for pay • Henry Morgan became leader • Sacked cities of Granada in Nicaragua, Sacked Puerto Principe in Cuba, Porto Bello in Panama, Maracaibo in Venezuela Panama, Henry Morgan Henry • Little known of his early Little • • life life Suggestion that he was Suggestion ‘Barbadosed’ ‘Barbadosed’ Joined Cromwell’s Joined expedition 1655 to escape indenture escape Port Royal Port • • • • Buccaneers’ capital Buccaneers’ Thriving business center Five forts , four churches, nineteen taverns 3000 inhabitants (1680) – largest town in 3000 English America English Port Royal Port Port Royal Port • During a twenty-year period that ended in During 1692, nearly 6,500 people lived in Port Royal. • 200 buildings crammed into 51 acres • The city’s wealth was so great that coins were The preferred for payment rather than the more common system of bartering goods for services. ‘Healthy’ Diversity • Attracted privateers, pirates, merchants, Attracted tavern-keepers, runaway servants, prostitutes, slaves, Protestants, Catholics, and Jews slaves, • Most boisterous, disorderly and liveliest city in Most the West – and the wickedest the • Sodom of the English Atlantic World Gender Gender • • • • Presence of women Greater diversity – more roles for women Less social control - more freedom for women “Wine and women drained their wealth to such Wine a degree that…some of them became reduced to beggary.” (Charles Leslie) to Attempts to Control Attempts • Early governors of Jamaica found Early buccaneers unmanageable buccaneers • Moddyford ‘partnership’ taking kickbacks • 1670 Treaty of Madrid 1670 – Spain recognized English Colonies – English revoke Letters of Marque Incredible Violence/Destruction Incredible • Ignored: marched fourteen hundred men across jungled Isthmus, plundered and burned city of Panama, and returned with £70,000 loot. • Destroyed 5000 buildings, 200 warehouses, “many full of slaves hiding from the pirates” • Recalled in disgrace • Returned as Governor 1675; Knighted 1678 Imposing Order Imposing • 1680s Governor Thomas Lynch – attempts to 1680s gain financial autonomy from pirates gain • A bill introduced by Jamaican Assembly – Grant fiscal independence to governor Grant – Bitterly opposed by “that little drunken silly party Bitterly of Sir H. Morgan.” • Anti-Piracy Act 1683 End of an Age End • Public Opinion shifted • 1688 1688 – General George Monk last governor to General countenance piracy died countenance – Henry Morgan died – Glorious Revolution • 1692 Earthquake Port Royal Perched precariously on the end of the unstable sand spit sand Earthquake 1692 Earthquake • Port Royal plunged beneath the waves • Only 25 of Port Royal’s original 60 acres Only remained. • 2000 lost instantly • 3000 succumbed to injury, fever and 3000 vandals vandals • Built new harbor: Kingston Toward Plantation Society Toward • Thomas Moddyford brought 800 settlers Thomas with sugar-making experience with • English from Surinam – knowledge of English sugar sugar • Sought colonizers from N. America • 30 acres after four years - indentured 30 servants servants Sugar Plantation Triumphs Sugar • Even Morgan joined the wave of the future. Even • At his death had 122 slaves and two sugar At estates in St. Mary parish worth more than any remaining loot. any Legacy of History Legacy • “Nothing contributed so much to the Nothing settlement ant opulence of this island in early times, as the resort to it of those men called Bucaniers; the wealth which they acquired having been speedily transferred to people whose industry was employed in cultivation or commerce.” commerce.” Late Mercantile Wars Late Late Mercantile Wars Late Mercantile Wars 1701-1713 Mercantile • War of Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War) War 1701-1713 1701-1713 – Treaty of Utrecht – gains asiento Treaty asiento – Royal Africa Company /South Sea Company • Seven Years War 1756-1763 – Treaty of Paris 1763 – Tobago, Granada, Dominica, St Vincent in the Tobago, Caribbean Caribbean French and Haitian Revolution French • • • • • French Revolution 1789 1790 free coloreds in Haiti rebel 1791 – Declaration: all free men equal 1791 major slave rebellion 1793 Napoleon declared war England Touissant L'Ouverture Touissant • 1796 Lieutenant 1796 • • Governor Governor 1798 Toussaint forced 1798 British to withdraw 1802 lured into exile Haitian Revolutionaries Haitian • Jean-Jacques Jean-Jacques Dessalines Dessalines • Henri Christophe • Haiti independent Haiti 12/31 1803 12/31 • (Nugents 1801-5) English-Speaking Caribbean English-Speaking ...
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