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Unformatted text preview: Morant Bay Afro-Creole: Freedom Afro-Creole: Free from sugar Free estates estates Free from physical Free abuse abuse Free to maintain the Free integrity of their family family Afro-Creole: Resourcefulness Knew thrift and monetary value of time Understood their rights and protested Understood vigorously any infringement of them vigorously DID NOT conform to the docile work force DID mono crop economy required mono Afro-Creole: Work Afro-Creole: Afro-Creole Afro-Creole men did not find their value in work per se per Women and Women children abandoned field labor field Free Villages Free Afro-Creole: Religion
A religious people Saw Christianity as efficacious Often sincerely and deeply moved by the story of Jesus Personal relationship to Jesus’ suffering and Crucifixion Moral/Sexual Discipline Focus on sin and Focus purity purity Missionaries Missionaries restricted native amusements and recreational outlets outlets Eudaemonism:
Right action produces well-being & joy Right Right action Right produces happiness happiness Christianity & Guilt “This man took me to a fine house, and there I saw a white gentleman, who was my master; and he took me to live with him. . . The I had a dear little baby. Then I hear a man preach that God in heaven was angry with me for living with my master, and I went home and cried to myself many days.” Changing Masters “Spare your wives from heavy field work, as much as you can; make them attend to their duties at home, in bringing up your children, and in taking care of our stock; above all make your children attend divine service and school.” Gender Relations Gender
Afro-Creole women Afro-Creole saw Christian marriage as a mark of subordination to the male the Independent Villages Independent Took possession by squatting Neither expense or privileges of European missionary intervention Set up along Afro-Creole lines Practiced less orthodox brand of Native Practiced Christianity Christianity Landless Landless Neither free nor independent village Those in most dire straits Forced to continue work on sugar Forced plantation plantation Many fled to city where population Many expanded more readily than available jobs expanded Economic Decline Economic Mono Crop Economy Mono Competition with sugar beets Sugar Duties Act -1846 Price of sugar fell repeatedly: by 25 Price percent between 1805 and 1825, by another 25 per cent between 1825 and 1835, and again by another 25 per cent between1835 and 1850. between1835 Afro-Creole Response Afro-Creole Myal Procession 1841 Myal Subtle reaction to domination and expense of Subtle European missionaries European Protest rigid morals and regimentation Oppression interpreted as anti-social ‘sorcery’ Oppression that had to be countered that Dominated by young men who saw Dominated themselves as bringing the world back into right relation right Great Revival 1860-1861 Great Encouraged by Encouraged missionaries ‘Getting the Getting spirit’ spirit’ African Derived Religions African The ‘60 Orders’ – more African; worked with The the less Christian, ‘more dangerous spirits (Pukumina) (Pukumina) The ‘61 Orders’ – worked only with the ‘sky’ The spirits and not with ‘ground spirits’ (Zion, Revival, Revival-Zion) Revival, Both opposed ‘church business’ – connection Both with official Christian churches. with Missionary Response Missionary Jamaica / Petitioners Dr. E.B. Underhill, secretary of Baptist Dr. Mission Society Wrote letter to Colonial Secretary to convey Wrote seriousness of economic situation seriousness Gave rise to local meetings, with Gave missionaries and on their own missionaries Peasant Petitioner “If our most Gracious If Sovereign Lady (Queen Victoria) will be so kind as to get a quantity of land, we will put our hands and heart to work, and cultivate coffee, corn, cotton and tobacco and other produce.” (Poor people of St. Ann’s Perish) Perish) British Response British Queen’s Advice Queen’s Queen’s Advise* Queen’s Written, ironically, by Henry Taylor Governor Eyre put on placards hung all Governor over Jamaica over Required ministers to read from pulpits; Required many refused many Governor Edward Eyre Governor 1861 appointed 1861 acting governor of Jamaica Jamaica Strong advocate Strong for Crown Colony rule rule Crown Colony Crown Radical proposal in 1838, not by 1865 “Benevolent guardianship” because “with Benevolent the recent removal of the racial disqualifications, a majority of their members would soon no longer be white.” (Henry Taylor) (Henry Morant Bay 1865 Morant Players Players William Gordon - mulatto member of William Jamaican Assembly Jamaican Paul Bogle - ordained Baptist minister Paul and supported by Gordon and Governor Eyre – considered Gordon Governor personal enemy personal The Rebellion The October 7, 1865 October Morant Bay – St. Thomas in the East Morant Altercation over unjust court decision October 11, Bogle marched with protestors; October militia opened fire killing 7; rioting killed 18 whites and militia 18 Paul Bogle ?- 1865 Paul Sought help from Sought Maroons Maroons They hesitated They before taking the side of the government government Brutally Put Down Brutally 29 whites lost their lives Martial law declared Losses during fighting unknown 354 executed by court martial 50 shot without trial 1000 homes burned William Gordon William Clincher: William Clincher: Gordon – taken from Kingston to St. Thomas where martial law was in effect and hanged without a trial without A Second Haiti? Second
“The valuable lives of many noble and gallant men, who The were ornaments of the land, have been sacrificed by a most savage and cruel butchery, only paralleled by the atrocities of the Indian Mutiny . . . it is necessary to bring these facts before you in order to convince you how widely spread, and how deeply rooted, the spirit of disaffection is; how daring and determined the intention has been and still is, to make Jamaica a second Haiti, and how imperative it is to take such measures as may avert such a calamity.” (Eyre) measures Aftermath Aftermath Governor Eyre Controversy Governor Governor Eyre Controversy – Mill Governor /Carlyle /Carlyle Jamaica Committee: Eyre removed from Jamaica office, but no conviction office, Shift from similarity to difference Invoking Gender Invoking Eyre described as “one of the very finest types Eyre of English manhood” protecting British women from the ‘murder and lust of black savages.” savages.” Justifying Violence Justifying “My proudest My recollection was that I had saved the white women of Jamaica.” Jamaica.” A Lesson Lesson
“The retribution had The been prompt and so terrible that it is never likely to be forgotten.” (Eyre) forgotten.” Afro Creole Lens Afro “Name Change: Name Morant Bay Rebellion”* Rebellion”* Lorna Goodison Invisibility of Afro-Creole Invisibility 1866 Jamaican Legislature abolished itself as 1866 an independent institution. All British colonies followed suit except All Barbados and Bahamas. Barbados Afro-Creole culture would development Afro-Creole henceforth according to its own values, mores, and customs mores, ...
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- Spring '10
- The Land