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Unformatted text preview: Town and Village Town
Post Morant Bay Post Census: 1871 / 1891 Census: White population: 13,101 / 14,692 Brown population: 100,346 / 134,263 Black population: 392,767 / 506,277 1891 76.41 % of population black, 19.07 % 1891 brown brown 1911 75.9% black, 19.6% brown Two Jamaicas → Two Jamaicas: an official Jamaica and Two the one which the “Negroes [built] in their own way with little European guidance.” (Curtin) guidance.” → Four Jamaicas Four European elite – British administrators Euro-oriented brown upper class – resident Euro-oriented planters, merchants and professionals. Creole intellectual elite – less mimic men, Creole but writing out of a western tradition but Afro-Caribbean black population – potential Afro-Caribbean for a real alternative tradition. for Internal Racism Internal “If you’re white you’re right, if you’re brown If stick around, if you’re black stay back.” stick Racial barrier unbridgeable: self-defeating Racial and self-effacing attempts to bridge. and Clear skin, good hair, fine features Marrying up – with hope that that would lighten Marrying the race the Being White White = Not Being Black White Maintained position by power of habit and Maintained habit of power habit Bureaucracy monopolized by expatriates White only clubs Remained rooted in landownership Compounding Compounding Being Brown Being
Middle Class Becoming British Becoming Respectable Legal marriages, Legal legitimate children, male provider, stay-atmale home wives. home Legitimacy = Civilized Glass Ceilings Glass Greater the wealth = more discrimination Fear they would support blacks over whites For Mulatto: Shade prejudice – sensitive to For subject of color subject Tended to dwell in urban areas Sexuality Sexuality Outside woman and family hidden Outside Ambiguously accepted Ambiguously Children from outside relationship either Children taken into primary household or. . . Included in family gatherings Economic support Continuation of Hypocrisy Continuation “Here is Jamaica’s paramount need – the Here training and disciplining of the black race. . Let them practise self-control. . . The average black man is not as highly developed in mind and character as most white men. . . because they do not discipline themselves and keep their passions in subjection.” (Daily Gleaner) their Being Brown Being
The Intellectuals Froudicity – J.J. Thomas J.J. Froudicity - refuted Froude’s claim that West Froudicity Indies not capable of self-government. Included all population from Europeans to blacks Challenged his claim that all slaves in the Challenged West had been rescued from a worse African slavery: not “even three in ten were slaves in their own country.” (Froudicity) their Robert Love Founded newspaper Founded called the Jamaican Advocate Advocate Life-long defense of Life-long Afro-Creole population Being Black Being
The Little Tradition Surviving Social Control Surviving “ . . . in a village, there’s a sort of puritanical approach to things. If you were the sort of person who would be inclined to dance about and jump and thing, to sing folk songs and things, you were considered to be ordinary, you know. You shouldn’t behave like going back towards slavery or something like that.” back ‘Dance about and jump and ting’ Patois Patois From Speech pattern “one was From supposed to grow out of.” (Naipaul) supposed To celebration: J.J. Thomas wrote To Theory and Practice in Creole Grammar Grammar Sought to give respect and Sought importance to the language of the common people common Man of Words Tradition Man Play Verbal adroitness Spontaneous improvisation Perfermative Perfermative Word contests Religion – eloquence Outside the yard / Gendered Male? Tea Meetings Tea Claude McKay’s Claude Banana Bottom Banana Village entertainment Storytelling contests Dance contests Auctioned food Selection of veiled Selection queen queen Dub Poets Dub Revivalism → Worldview Worldview African – derived: loose bands, acephalous Belief spirits could be accessed Nature was alive with power Dreams contained messages Illnesses had a spiritual cause that could be Illnesses healed through divination and ritual healed Gender
Gender Attitudes Gender Folk Wisdom Folk Women both respected and feared → control Women control Myth of the fall Bible: Eve, Jezebel, Delilah Folk Wisdom “Beautiful woman, beautiful trouble” “Ooman a ‘ebi load’ when di money no nuff” Folk Wisdom Folk “Woman is useful, but so is dildo; woman is Woman amusing, but so is monkey; woman walk softly, but so do scorpion and snake; woman mean well, but so black spiders; woman is attentive, but so is sandfly and mosquito; woman is bewitching, but so by all accounts is the devil himself.” is Gender Gender
Control of Women Balm Healing Balm Mothers / Mada Spirituality and Spirituality healing associated with women with Folk Folk psychotherapy – ability to spiritually absorb patient’s suffering suffering Increasing Male Control Majority of Majority members came to be women be Most top positions Most taken by males taken Prestige through Prestige performative skills skills Respectability & Afro-Creoles Respectability Economic realities made it impossible Economic to conform to marriage requirements of Respectability Respectability African marriage patterns and gender African attitudes remained strong attitudes Respectability Internalised Respectability Compliance (female) / resistance (male) Young girls carefully watch; boys Young turned out early turned Girls domestic space of the yard; boys Girls the public space street corner the The Yard → Female space Female The Street Corner → Male Space Male Yard and Street ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2010 for the course HIST HIST-2626 taught by Professor Jeannechristensen during the Spring '10 term at University of Colombo.
- Spring '10