To Make Visible (PowerPoint)

To Make Visible (PowerPoint) - To Make Visible To Political...

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Unformatted text preview: To Make Visible To Political Situation Political • 1886 franchise had been extended to males who paid 1886 • • • a land tax of not less than ten shillings land 1906 further extended to males earning annual salary 1906 of not less than £50 from land or £200,000 partly from land and partly from business from 1930 election less than 10% of population elected 1930 members to the colonial legislature members Labor unions, legalized in Britain in 1875, were still Labor illegal in Jamaica illegal World War I World October 1915 October West Indian Regiment Regiment Britain Britain hesitant hesitant Some W.I. Some felt: “white man’s war.” man’s Interwar Years 1918-1938 Interwar • Return veterans add to urban poverty • Depression – closed opportunities Depression • • abroad abroad Poverty more visible in the cities Poverty Urban poor sang about their troubles as Urban they had done in the countryside they Slim and Sam Slim A went to Sandy Gully fe went go get a bite go Dem set dung me name Dem and a feel alright and De very day I start to De work di man dem strike. . . If I had a gun I would hang myself If I could swim I would shoot myself shoot If I had a rope I would If drown myself, drown Waai. Waai. New Assertion New Bedward Movement 1880-1921 Bedward • • • • United Revivalist bands into a following of 7000 “Black wall will rise up against the white wall” Also exposed internal racism – claimed fasting would whiten Also the heart the Not allowed to marry Pan-Africanism Pan-Africanism Migrations Migrations • 1900 the foreign-born black population of 1900 • • • • the United States numbered 20,336 the 1910 - 40,339 1920 - 73,803 1920 1930 - 98,620 foreign-born blacks About half lived in Harlem, New York. Harlem Renaissance Renaissance • Cultural expression • Confluence of Confluence • • forces forces Movement of AfroAmericans to the Americans north north Movement of AfroCaribbean to U.S. Pan-Africanism Pan-Africanism • Political Expression Political • 1900 Pan-African Congress launched: 1900 London • Merging of continuing struggle of formerly Merging enslaved people in Atlantic world with newly colonized Africa newly • 1919 First Pan-African Conference in Paris William Sylvester Williams Williams • To "promote and protect the To interests of all subjects claiming African descent, wholly or in part, by circulating accurate information on all subjects affecting their rights and privileges as subjects of the British Empire." W.E.B. DuBois W.E.B. • “To bring into closer To touch with each other peoples of African descent throughout the world.” world.” Marxism / Communism Marxism • George Padmore George CLR James • CLR UNIA UNIA Universal Negro Improvement Universal Association Association Marcus Garvey Marcus • Born in St. Ann, Born Jamaica. • Parents modestly Parents prosperous peasants prosperous • 1910 left Jamaica 1910 and traveled around central and South America America • 1912 – London and 1912 Europe Europe UNIA UNIA • Returned to Jamaica in 1914 Returned • Founded the UNIA with Amy Ashwood – Radical uplift of African people – African nationalism – “Africa for Africans” – Made Afro-Creole experience visible • Left for U.S. 1916 – important voice in Left Harlem Renaissance Harlem Man of Words Man • “Up, up ye mighty Up, people you can accomplish what you will!” will!” Largest black mass Largest movement ever movement • UNIA in U.S. UNIA • Newspaper – The Negro World / Black Man Newspaper The Black • Network of Liberty Halls – 1400 throughout the Network • • • world. world. Black businesses – Black Dolls, Black Star Line UNIA Conference held at Madison Square Garden – UNIA 25,000 people in attendance Arrested and then deported for mail fraud To Make Visible To • All black organization – made visible their exclusion All • • • from white society from Black Star Line vs. White Star Line Symbols, ritual, pomp and circumstances: uniforms, Symbols, parades, legions, officers, national anthems parades, Called for worship of black God. “Never admit that Called Jesus Christ was a white man, otherwise he could not be the Son of God and God to redeem all mankind.” be Deported back to Jamaica Jamaica “Look for me in the Look whirlwind or the storm, look for me all around you, for, with God’s grace, I shall come and bring with me countless millions of black slaves who have dies in America and the West In dies and the millions in Africa to aid you in the fight for Liberty, Freedom and life.” Ethiopianism Ethiopianism Attempt to work free of Ham’s curse Ethiopianism Ethiopianism • Afro-Creole / Afro-Am. grass roots Afro-Creole expression expression • Bible references – “Ethiopia shall stretch Bible forth her hand” • UNIA – adopted Ethiopian as term of UNIA identity for black people identity UNIA Anthem UNIA • As storm clouds at night sudden gathers • Our armies come rushing to thee • We must in the fight be victorious • The land where our God loves to be • Ethiopia the land of our fathers • When swords are thrust outwards to gleam • For us will the victory be glorious • And led by the red black and green • Advance, advance to victory • Let Africa be free • Advance to meet the foe • With the might • Of the red, black and green Ethiopian Literature Ethiopian • Holy Piby – – Robert Athlyi Rogers 1924 “Call not my Holy house ‘Church’ neither shall Call thou permit unjust literature which teaches that God has commanded Israel to oppress, rob and destroy the offsprings of Ham.” Rev. Fitz Ballintine Petersburg, 1926. Rev. Made reference to Monarch of Dread Creation • Royal Parchment Scroll – – Street Preachers Street • Isaac Uriah Brown – Royal Prince Thomas Isaac Isaac Makarooroo Isaac • Prince Shrevington Mitcheline – claimed to be Prince grandson of Menelik grandson • Seven Keys Man • Warrior Higgens leader of Revivalist band Warrior knows as Millennium Band knows Back in Jamaica Back • The most famous The Street Preacher Street Ethiopia Ethiopia • • • Defeated of Italy by Menelik in 1896 1930 Coronation of Tafari Makonnen 1930 Titles: “Haile Selassie, King of Kings, Lord of Titles: Lords, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Power of the Trinity” Power • Invasion of Ethiopia by Italy 1935 – formation Invasion of Ethiopian World Federation of Emperor Selassie and Empress Mennon Emperor Rastafari Rastafari Two Streams Two • Ethiopian ideas - overcome the internalized Ethiopian racism. • Transformative power of the Afro-Creole folk Transformative tradition – calling up an African Deity tradition • First Preachers – All had experience outside Jamaica. All – Came to declare Rastafari independently Leonard Howell Leonard • Born Clarendon, Born • Jamaica Jamaica Harlem – spiritualist, Harlem herbalist, said to be ‘good with his hands’ ‘good Pinnacle: Gong Pinnacle: • Began to proclaim Selassie God of black Began people people • Recruited in St. Thomas (Kumina) • Founded commune above Spanish Town Founded (Sligoville) known as Pinnacle. • Wrote Promise Key – almost plagarized version of Royal Parchment Scroll Royal Justice on Earth Justice You don’t need to You pay taxes. The land belongs to the black man because our king was just crowned in Ethiopia. We do not any longer consider that boy George Stuart in England as king of the black man. the Nathaniel Hibbert Nathaniel • Time in Costa Rica • Member of Mystic Member • Order of Ethiopia Order Regarded as a ‘scientist’ Preachers Preachers • Henry Archibald Dunkley – seaman; two and a Henry half years of intensive study of the bible half • Robert Hinds – – – Howell’s Lieutenant. Howell’s Largest following Closest to Revival-membership, more women History History • Roots: Revival • Antagonism between Rastafari and Revival Antagonism bands bands • Close connection between Rastafari bands and Close EWF units • Highly decentralized • Rural → Urban Rural Urban Beliefs Beliefs • • • • Haile Selassie: black God predicted by Garvey New Livity New Repatriation Spirit possession → Reasoning Spirit Reasoning Word Sound Power Word • • • Nommo – words create, bring into being Nommo words “I” language Create higher vibration – ‘overstand’ rather Create than understand; ‘livicate’ rather than dedicate; ‘lifeline’ rather than deadline; ‘truebury’ rather than library ‘truebury’ • Change meaning: deader (meat) ; politricks; Change shitsdom; head-decay-shun; you-rope-I-hands shitsdom; Social Protest Movement Social • • • • • • Make Africa visible – locks, clothes Make Reject Respectability – blackheartman Reject British or middle-class rule Reject Reject politics – bypass Reject capitalism and wage labor Rejection of war and violence – Rastafari Rejection anthem anthem Nyahbingi Drumming Nyahbingi • Ethiopia the land of our fathers • The land where our God loves to be • As the swift bee to hive sudden gathers • Thy children are gathered to thee • With our Red, Gold and Green floating o’er us • With our Emperor to shield us from wrong • With our God and future before us • We hail thee with shout and with song. • God bless our Negus, Negus I who keeps Ithiopia free, • To advance, with truth and right, truth and right • To advance with love and light, love and light • With righteous pleading • We haste to our God and King • Humanity pleading, one God for us all. Rastafari Mansions Rastafari Nyahbingi Bobo EOC EOC Twelve Tribes Labor Rebellion 1938 Labor One of a rash of riots throughout One Caribbean in 1930s Caribbean Labor Riots Labor • Dec. 1937 workers on Serge Island Estate St. Dec. Thomas refused to harvesting sugar crop. • May 1938 strike and disturbance at Frome May Westmoreland – Four, wounded scores of others and arrested eighty-five. others May May • Waterfront workers in Kingston went on strike – Waterfront triggered explosion of strikes and demonstrations. triggered Brown Middle Class Brown Paternalism Alexander Bustamante Bustamante • “Trust me. I am Trust going to organise all Jamaica soon. . . you will all be at your homes while I am with the employers adjusting matters on your behalf.” on Norman Manley • “My head is wiser than yours tonight,” “and if we can stop My disorder breaking out in Jamaica today and if we can get a little extra wage for everybody, we can sit down and tackle the bigger problems.” bigger Moyne Commission 1945 Moyne • Confirmed neglect of Caribbean • Exposed conditions – health, education, Exposed labor, and social conditions labor, • So critical British government elected not to So make public until after WWII make • Recommended extension of the franchise ...
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