Unformatted text preview: Two Nationalisms Two Nationalisms
Black Nationalism Jamaican Nationalism Toward Independence Toward Independence Modern Jamaican Politics Modern Jamaican Politics Continuing paternalism Jamaican Labor Party – Bustamante
Began as labor union Formed a political party People’s National Party – Manley Began as political party Formed a labor union (People’s National Party) Jamaican Nationalism Jamaican Nationalism 1874 Jamaican Association formed 1909 National Club – nationalist aspirations 1936 Jamaican Progressive League – to promote self government 1944 Jamaican Federation of Women 1950s tried to form federation of British colonies. Failed. Little Resistance Little Resistance
“The Caribbean is an area of the world where there are no vital United Kingdom interests and few strategic considerations, and where our fundamental aim in the area since 1945 has been political disengagement.” Domestic Divides Domestic Divides Brown population Westminster model with Governor General Afrocreole population feared mere ‘changing of the guard: “Four hundred years of colonial reign / has brought the people misery, has left them such pain. / The talk is now of independence you see. / It wasn’t meant for you or for me.” Independence Independence 1962 Jamaica and TrinidadTobago became independent, Barbados and Guyana in 1966, and Bahamas 1973. Starting with Grenada in 1974 independence was conceded to those remaining colonies who requested it. All former colonies retained the British monarch with local GovernorGeneral. Jamaica → Republic. December 1997 last oath of loyalty to British monarchy. Postcolonial Jamaica Postcolonial Jamaica Dilemma of Independence Dilemma of Independence We tun independent nation / In de commonwealth of Nation An we get congratulation / From de folks of high careers; We go Consuls and Ambassadors / An ministers and Senators Dah rub shoulder an dip mout / Eena heavy world affairs. We tell Russia we don’t like dem, / We tell Englan we naw beg dem, An we meck Merica know . We is behine dem. For doah we Army scanty / An we Navy don’t form yet, Any nation dat we side wid / Woulda never need to fret; We defence is not defenceless / For we got we half a brick, We got we broken bottle / An we coocoomacca stick; But we willin to put down we arms / In Peace and Freedom’s name An we call upon de nations / Of de worl to do de same Contending for Space Contending for Space
Transnational rather than national PanAfrican rather than anglophile Emancipation Day over Independence Day UNIA / Rastafari anthem over Jamaican national anthem Struggle over Haile Selassie school Cultural Cultural Renaissance Cultural Renaissance Cultural Renaissance “Harder They Come Perry Henzell (1973) Based on true story of Jamaican outlaw Ivanhoe Martin (Rhygin: ‘rude bwoy’ culture) Captures antiestablishment celebration of popular culture Also depicts Rastafari reconstruction of gender and culture Loved him for bravado and style Trickster figure – good and evil Disruption like Carnival Reputation & Respectability Reputation & Respectability Conversation #3 Sexual selfcontrol → sexual prowess and virility Family (yard) → peer group (crew/street corner) Breadwinner → ostentatious spending British Education and Queen’s English → verbal performance and adroitness Respectable religions – Africanderived religions Structural Readjustment Structural Readjustment 1970s economic downturn International Monetary Fund/World Bank Structural Adjustment – raise interest rates and cut government spending State unable to provide services
Public transportation Roads repairs Public education Health care Economic Trends Economic Survival Economic Survival Tourism Export zones processing zones Shifted focus from urban areas and needs of majority population Dramatic rise in cost of living Growth of Informal Sector Growth of Informal Sector From higgler to Informal commercial importer (ICI) Providing public transportation Illegal drugs, fraud, and currency exchange on the black market Dancehall Music scene– development of a petty commodity sector The Dancehall The Dancehall Response to economic disenfranchisement Bid for survival Voice for the voiceless Stopped dealing with controversial political issues and moral regeneration Individualism, materialism and capitalist ideas of success Dance Hall Music Dance Hall Music Focused on male dee jays Toasting or singing over popular, often creating lyrics on the spot Slack lyrics – highly sexual, homophobic, violent Values of the 80s – individualism, materialism, consumption From sound system to dancehalls and clubs Dancehall Deejay Dancehall Deejay Girls dem deejay Slackness deejay Badmen deejay Rastafari deejay Social Implications Social Implications Dancehall informal sector provides actors with real economic tools Link to political violence, donism, illegal drug and gun culture ‘Rude bwoy’ social protest → individual struggle for economic, political and social power Gender Gender Challenge to patriarchal gender ideology and the pious respectability Sexual freedom for females OR. . . Sexual exploitation and reinforcement of patriarchal gender ideology ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2010 for the course HIST HIST-2626 taught by Professor Jeannechristensen during the Spring '10 term at University of Colombo.
- Spring '10