An Investigation into the Separation and Isolation Techniques of Extraction

An Investigation into the Separation and Isolation Techniques of Extraction

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An Investigation into the Separation and Isolation Techniques of Extraction Elizabeth Williams Chemistry 227 Laboratory, Section 021 Instructor: Emmanuel Amoah November 19, 2009 “My signature indicates that this document represents my own work outside of shared data, the information, thoughts, and ideas are my own except as indicated in the references. In addition, I have not given aid to another student on this assignment.” X Elizabeth Williams 11/19/09 Abstract This paper describes the process of separating a three-component mixture using extraction techniques. The separatory funnel was used to carry out this process. The three- component mixture consisted of an organic acid, an organic base, and a neutral compound. 1.5 grams of this three-component mixture was used. .306 grams of m-nitroaniline were produced with a percent yield of 20.4 %, .006 grams of benzoic acid were produced with a percent yield of .4%, and .199 grams of naphthalene were produced with a percent yield of 13.26%. Fundamental ideas of acid-base chemistry and solubility were utilized in performing the extractions. The recovered organic base, m -nitroaniline formed a yellow precipitate after vacuum filtration and the organic acid, benzoic acid, formed a white precipitate after vacuum filtration. The remaining neutral compound, naphthalene, formed a pale yellow precipitate. The only compound that did not yield a sufficient amount was the benzoic acid extracted; this occurred due to use of 10% HCl rather than concentrated HCl. A different group’s benzoic acid precipitate was used for determination of the melting point since our yield was so small. The recovered compounds were determined to have melting points very similar to the known melting points of the pure substances. For m -nitroaniline, the known melting point was 111 ° C and the experimentally determined melting point of the extracted compound was 111.1 ° C. For benzoic acid, the known melting point was 122 ° C and the recovered compound had a melting point of 120.9 ° C to 121.9 ° C. For naphthalene, the known melting point was 80 ° C and the recovered compound had a melting point of 79.8 ° C to 80.8 ° C. 1
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Introduction Extraction works by separating compounds based on their varying solubilities in two solvents that do not mix. When this technique is coupled with acid-base chemistry, this provides an excellent way to separate organic acids, bases, and neutral compounds from each other. Typically, very nonpolar compounds partition to the organic solvent while very polar compounds and salts partition to the aqueous phase. This employs the commonly cited phrase “like dissolves like.” Since the two compounds do not mix, they can easily be separated using the separatory funnel. For example, when ether and water are mixed, some of the ether will dissolve, but most of the ether just floats on top of the water. 4
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An Investigation into the Separation and Isolation Techniques of Extraction

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