ws_usap_ch17_web - Chapter 17 The Transformation of the...

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Chapter 17; The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 T. White-Schwoch KEY QUESTIONS! How was Indian life on the Great Plains transformed in the second half of the nineteenth century? What roles did the army and the railroads play in the settlement of the West? To what extend did the Homestead Act succeed in making free land available to those who settled in the West? How was the Wild West image of cowboys and Indians created? Why has it remained so popular? How did some Americans become more aware of the need to conserve natural resources by setting them aside in national parks? NATIVE AMERICANS AND THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI WEST The Plains Indians N Plains (Dakotas/Montana – Nebraska) several tribes: Lakota, Blackfeet, Crows, etc. Central: Five Civilized Tribes; agricultural S Plains migratory tribes: Comanches, Kiowa Apaches, etc. Varying economies/food supplies; life based on family/tribal relations 1850s migration of miners/settlers disrupted Indian life; bison declined The Destruction of Nomadic Indian Life Influx of settlers Æ gov’t abandon Ind. policy; new policy: tribal reservations Mixed responses; some peacefully accepted others fought fiercely Spring, 1864, gov’t authorized Colorado whites to freely kill hostile Indians on sight; then Col. John M. Chivington (Methodist minister) led massacre Medicine Law Treaty of 1867: rep. from 68,000 Ind. pledged live on land in OK Custer’s Last Stand, 1876 Fiercest battles w/ Siouz in Dakotas, Montana, Wyoming
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