Unit 4, Question 13

Unit 4, Question 13 - AP® United States History 2008...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® United States History 2008 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,400 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement ® ® Program (AP ). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, AP Central, Advanced Placement Program, AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the online home for AP teachers: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1—Document-Based Question For the years 1880 to 1925, analyze both the tensions surrounding the issue of immigration and the United States government’s response to these tensions. Use the following documents and your knowledge of the period from 1880 to 1925 to construct your answer. The 8–9 Essay • Articulates a clear, well-constructed thesis focusing on both the tensions surrounding the issue of immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the United States government’s response to those tensions during that period. • Effectively uses a substantial number of documents to examine both the tensions concerning immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the United States government’s response to those tensions during that time. • Provides ample relevant outside information, 1880 to 1925, concerning both the tensions surrounding immigration and the United States government’s response to those tensions. • Clearly analyzes both the tensions surrounding immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the government’s response to those tensions during that period. • Is well organized and well written. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, addressing both the tensions surrounding the issue of immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the United States government’s response to those tensions during that period. • Employs some documents to examine both the tensions concerning immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the United States government’s response to those tensions at that time. • Provides some relevant outside information, 1880 to 1925, concerning both the tensions revolving around immigration and the government’s response to those tensions. • Analyzes to some extent the tensions surrounding immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the government’s response to those tensions during that period; coverage may not be balanced between the two sets of issues. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be simplistic, confused, or undeveloped in addressing both the tensions surrounding the issue of immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the United States government’s response to those tensions during that period; or presents no thesis. • Uses few documents concerning the tensions surrounding immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the United States government’s response to those tensions. • Includes little relevant outside information concerning the tensions revolving around immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the United States government’s response to those tensions. • Has little analysis of the tensions concerning immigration between 1880 and 1925 and the United States government’s response to those tensions at that time; may treat only one part of the question. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1—Document-Based Question (continued) The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Refers to few, if any, of the documents. • Includes no relevant outside information from 1880 to 1925. • Contains no analysis. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain numerous errors, both major and minor. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences Accommodationism Addams, Jane African Americans—vast majority lived in the South during this period Americanization programs, limited effectiveness of Anarchists Angel Island Atlanta Compromise Bosses Chinatowns Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Communists Ellis Island Eugenics Eugenics movement Fears of diseases brought by immigrants Frontier, closing of Gilded Age Great White Fleet Haymarket Square massacre, 1886 Hull House Social Settlement Immigration—predominantly from northern Europe (Great Britain, Germany, Ireland, Scandinavia) as late as 1880—increasingly from southern and eastern Europe from 1880 to 1925 Immigrants—few in the South during this period Immigration—surge following Reconstruction Immigration laws—few prior to 1880 Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests Irish immigration, 1840s–1850s Industrial Workers of the World (IWW; “Wobblies”) Isolationism Jim Crow Johnson–Reed Immigration Act, 1924 Ku Klux Klan Laissez-faire capitalism Literacy tests Little Italys Lynching National origins system Nativism—little in 1880, growing in 1890s and later “New immigration”—increasingly from southern and eastern Europe from 1880 to 1925 “Old immigration”—predominantly from northern Europe (Great Britain, Germany, Ireland, Scandinavia) as late as 1880 Optimism about incorporating newcomers in 1880 Organized labor, rise of Palmer, A. Mitchell / Palmer Raids Pendleton Civil Service Act, 1883 Progressivism Prohibition/temperance Quota system Racial segregation Red Scare Reform movements Restrictions on immigrant admissions—few in 1880 Riis, Jacob A., How the Other Half Lives (1890) Robber barons Roosevelt, Theodore Ross, Edward—known for his sociological work that tended to be hostile to southern and eastern immigrants—as critic of immigration Sacco, Bartolomeo, and Nicola Vanzetti Salvation Army Scientific racism Settlement houses Sinclair, Upton, The Jungle (1905) Social Darwinism Strike-breakers, immigrants as Tammany Hall Tenements Transcontinental railroad Tuskegee Institute Tweed, William Marcy “Boss” Working conditions for immigrants Xenophobia Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) DOCUMENT A Source: Puck magazine, April 28, 1880 Reproduced by permission of Punch Ltd. Document Information: • Depicts Uncle Sam welcoming immigrants with open arms. • Depicts immigrants flocking to the United States. • Signs show the United States as a refuge and asylum for immigrants. • Signs indicate the freedoms to be found, particularly from taxes, kings, and compulsory military service. Document Inferences: • An image of the United States before the large-scale shift to immigration from southern and eastern Europe and the rise of anti-immigrant sentiments. • Cartoon reflects generally positive (or unthreatened) approach to immigration. Potential Outside Information Triggered by Document: Few immigration laws prior to 1880 Optimism about incorporating newcomers in Few restrictions on admissions in 1880 1880 Little nativism in 1880 © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) DOCUMENT B Source: James Bryce, The American Commonwealth, 1888 A certain part of this recent immigration is transitory. Italians and Slovaks, for instance, after they have by thrift accumulated a sum which is large for them, return to their native villages, and carry back with them new notions and habits which set up a ferment among the simple rustics of a Calabrian or North Hungarian Valley. For the United States the practice has the double advantage of supplying a volume of cheap unskilled labour when employment is brisk and of removing it when employment becomes slack, so that the number of the unemployed, often very large when a financial crisis has brought bad times, is rapidly reduced, and there is more work for the permanently settled part of the laboring class. It is the easier to go backwards and forwards, because two thirds among all the races except the Jews, are men, either unmarried youths or persons who have left their wives behind. Document information: • Many immigrants engaged in return migration. • Immigrants would not pose a long-term problem for the nation because many returned to their native countries and brought American values with them. • Describes benefits to the nation of cheap immigrant labor. • A high percentage of the immigrants were young men (except among the Jews). • Provides a positive view of immigration. Document Inferences: • Shift in sources of immigrants from northern and western Europe to southern and eastern Europe. • The motivation for migrating was economic opportunity; when successful, many migrants tended to return to homeland. • A primary reason to support immigration was economic (supply of cheap labor). • Bryce, one of a number of European observers of the United States, suggests that the United States had no need to restrict immigration; restriction would cause economic harm to the nation. Potential Outside Information Triggered by Document: Gilded Age Laissez-faire capitalism Immigration—surge following Reconstruction Robber barons © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) DOCUMENT C Source: National People’s Party platform, 1892, Expression of Sentiments Resolved, That we condemn the fallacy of protecting American labor under the present system, which opens our ports to the pauper and criminal classes of the world and crowds out our wage-earners; and we denounce the present ineffective laws against contract labor, and demand the further restriction of undesirable emigration. Document Information: • The National People’s Party asserted in 1892 that current immigration policies (or lack thereof) failed to protect workers. • Claims that current policies allowed paupers and criminals to immigrate. • Expresses growing concerns about the negative impact of immigration on American workers. Document Inferences: • The National People’s Party was also known as the Populists or Populist Party. • The Foran Act (contract labor law of 1885) was ineffective. • Statement of opposition to immigration came one year before the Panic of 1893. • Beginning of calls to close off or at least limit immigration. Potential Outside Information Triggered by Document: Nativism growing in 1890s Progressivism Organized labor, rise of Xenophobia Reform movements © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) DOCUMENT D Source: Booker T. Washington, speech in Atlanta, Georgia, September 18, 1895 To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted I would repeat what I say to my own race, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” Cast it down among the eight millions of Negroes whose habits you know, whose fidelity and love you have tested in days when to have proved treacherous meant the ruin of your firesides. Cast down your bucket among these people who have without strikes and labour wars, tilled your fields, cleared your forest, [built] your railroads and cities, and brought forth treasures from the bowels of the earth, and helped make possible this magnificent representation of the progress of the South . . . . As we have proved our loyalty to you in the past, . . . we shall stand by you with a devotion that no foreigner can approach . . . . Document Information: • Booker T. Washington appealed to nativism to promote African Americans as valuable laborers who were already in the South. • Washington pledged the loyalty and devotion of African Americans to white southerners. Document Inferences: • Booker T. Washington was a leading black figure in the era. • Washington was addressing the Cotton Exposition in Atlanta. • Washington was appealing to the myth that African Americans had been loyal slaves. Potential Outside Information Triggered by Document: Accommodationism Vast majority of African Americans lived in the Atlanta Compromise South during this period Washington’s Tuskegee Institute trained African Few immigrants settled in the South during this Americans as loyal workers, obviating the period need for immigrants © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) DOCUMENT E Source: Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration, 1908 In order that the best results might follow from an enforcement of the regulations, an understanding was reached with Japan that the existing policy of discouraging emigration of its subjects of the laboring classes to continental United States should continue, and should, by co-operation with the governments, be made as effective as possible. Document Information: • Japanese government cooperated with the United States in restricting migration of laborers. • “Gentlemen’s Agreement.” Document Inferences: • San Francisco school segregation of Japanese students (1906). • Creation of the Commissioner General of Immigration marked a major step in federalizing immigration policies; federal government taking more direct action to limit immigration. • Change in policy from dictating to countries (e.g., Chinese Exclusion Act) to cooperating with other governments. • The carrot of cooperation was, however, backed up by the “stick” of the Great White Fleet’s visit to Japan. Potential Outside Information Triggered by Document: Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Roosevelt, Theodore Great White Fleet © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) DOCUMENT F Source: Edward A. Ross, Century Magazine, 1914 In 1908, on the occasion of a “homecoming” celebration in Boston, a newspaper told how the returning sons of Boston were “greeted by Mayor Fitzgerald and the following members of Congress: O’Connell, Kelihar, Sullivan, and McNary—following in the footsteps of Webster, Sumner, Adams, and Hoar. They were told of the great work as Mayor of the late beloved Patrick Collins. At the City Hall they found the sons of Irish exiles and immigrants administering the affairs of the metropolis of New England. Besides the Mayor, they were greeted by John J. Murphy, Chairman of the Board of Assessors; Commissioner of Streets Doyle; Commissioner of Baths O’Brien . . . Police Commissioner O’Meara.” Document Information: • The major political figures in Boston in 1908 all had Irish surnames. Document Inferences: • The Irish had achieved notable social and political mobility in their half-century of residence in the United States. • Politics and municipal employment represented a major means of mobility. • In a period of relative prosperity (1908), Ross provided a positive reading of the immigrant experience and immigrant assimilation. Potential Outside Information Triggered by Document: Earlier period of Irish immigration, 1840s–1850s Ross is otherwise known for his sociological work Political bosses, e.g., William Marcy “Boss” that tended to be hostile to southern and Tweed, Tammany Hall eastern immigrants Ross becomes one of the growing number of critics of immigration © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) DOCUMENT G Source: Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, 1918 Whatever may be its intellectual, its literary, its artistic or its musical aptitudes, as compared with other races, the Anglo-Saxon branch of the Nordic race is again showing itself to be that upon which the nation must chiefly depend for leadership, for courage, for loyalty, for unity and harmony of action, for self-sacrifice and devotion to an ideal. Not that members of other races are not doing their part, many of them are, but in no other human stock which has come to this country is there displayed the unanimity of heart, mind and action which is now being displayed by the descendants of the blue-eyed, fair-haired peoples of the north of Europe. Document Information: • Madison Grant claims Anglo-Saxon superiority. • Grant conflates race and ethnicity. Document Inferences: • Continued unchecked immigration threatened American society and morality. • Grant, an exponent of scientific racism, was a director of the American Eugenics Society and vice president of the Immigration Restriction League. • This work, originally published in 1916, was one of the most inflammatory attacks on the “new” immigrants. Potential Outside Information Triggered by Document: Eugenics movement “Old immigration” Literacy tests Quota system Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests Scientific racism “New immigration” © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) DOCUMENT H Source: The Literary Digest, May 7, 1921 Library of Congress Document Information: • Uncle Sam substantially closes off the flow of immigrants from Europe. • The “3% gate” refers to the pending Emergency Quota Act of May 1921 (a.k.a. Immigration Act). • First quota set at 3 percent of foreign-born populations in the United States in 1910. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document Inferences: • Quota system as the major government response to postwar tensions regarding immigration. • A 1924 law reduced quota to 2 percent of a smaller 1890 base of immigrants. • Resurgence of large-scale immigration after the First World War. • Quotas favored northern and western Europeans; peoples from the Americas were exempt from the quotas. • Sharp contrast to the welcome to newcomers implied in Document A. Potential Outside Information Triggered by Document: Americanization programs, limited effectiveness Literacy tests Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests of Isolationism National origins system Johnson–Reed Immigration Act, 1924 Nativism © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Time Line • March 3, 1875, the Page Act—for the first time the United States explicitly prohibited the admission of any person from Asia (China and Japan specifically) being brought in involuntarily for a contracted term of service for immoral activities or for the “cooly trade.” The law explicitly excluded any woman entering for the purpose of engaging in prostitution. Persons in the United States bringing in any such women or such involuntary migrants would be guilty of a felony. May 6, 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act—for the first time the United States barred admissions based on race, nationality, and occupation—Chinese laborers. Act of February 26, 1885 (“Foran Act”)—for the first time the United States government explicitly prohibited agreements for importing contract laborers, except skilled workers for new industries. Acts of August 3, 1882, and March 3, 1891—“regulation of immigration”—for the first time the United States prohibited the admission of persons based on their physical and/or mental condition or perceived amorality or because of a status already excluded—convicts, the mentally ill, those likely to become a public charge, those with diseases, prostitutes, polygamists, and contract laborers. January 1892—opening of Ellis Island by United States government for processing immigrants. San Francisco’s Angel Island did not open until 1910. March 2, 1895—federal government established Bureau of Immigration. March 1898—Wong Kim Ark v. United States—based on the Fourteenth Amendment, Chinese children born in the United States are United States citizens even if their parents are not. Act of April 30, 1900—all citizens of Hawaii were recognized as citizens of the United States following the precedent of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Acts of March 3, 1903—for the first time the United States prohibited the admission and naturalization of persons based on their political beliefs (in this case anarchism), followed by Exclusion and Expulsion of Anarchists Act, October 16, 1918. June 29, 1906, “Basic Naturalization Act”— establishment of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), the bureaucracy to oversee both immigration and naturalization policies. Law also barred polygamists and anarchists from citizenship and, as in the Act of March 1907, policies were established for revocation of citizenship, a power not in the United States Constitution and not overturned until 1967 (Afroyim v. Rusk). Wartime expansion of citizenship enacted May 9, 1918. 1907-08, “Gentlemen’s Agreement”—for the first time the United States persuaded another country (Japan) to agree to the United States request that no more laborers be allowed to emigrate to the United States. Immigration Act of February 20, 1907—codified immigration laws and established the first federal commission to examine immigration (“Dillingham Commission”). List of excludable classes expanded in Act of March 26, 1910. • • • • • • • • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Time Line (continued) • • March 2, 1907, Expatriation Act—United States-born women who wed those from other countries lost their citizenship until their husbands became United States citizens. February 5, 1917, Immigration Act—for the first time the United States barred the entry of persons based on their lack of education (the Literacy Test) and barred the admission of persons born in a specific region of the world (the Asiatic Barred Zone). Act of May 22, 1918, established control over emigration and immigration in time of war. Immigration between 1860 and 1924 had also become enmeshed as an intellectual, cultural, pseudo-scientific issue, with strains of racism, nativism, Anglo-Saxonism, anti-Semitism, antiCatholicism, flawed intelligence quotient (IQ) tests, eugenics, and Americanization efforts that were deemed a failure during and after First World War. Postwar disillusionment—Economic depression, race riots, prohibition, Ku Klux Klan, industrial changes, and reaction to immigrants’ perceived lack of integration finally demonstrated the overlapping effects of domestic and foreign policies and immigration and naturalization laws. September 22, 1922, Cable Act (“Married Women’s Independent Nationality Act”)—women’s citizenship status was separated from their husbands’ status, unless the men were Asian, in which case American-born women lost citizenship status, and Asian American women could not reacquire it (having become ineligible Asian aliens when marrying Asian men) until the law was amended in 1931. 1922, Takao Ozawa v. United States, and 1923, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind—declared Asians ineligible for citizenship, as they were neither Caucasian nor white by the common judgment of Americans (this was not based on any scientific data). May 19, 1921, Emergency Quota Act, and May 26, 1924, Johnson–Reed Immigration Act—for the first time the United States limited the admission of (mostly) European persons based on their nationality and the proportion of people of such nationality among all foreign-born persons in the United States (quotas). In 1921 the maximum was 3 percent of those born outside of the United States present in 1910. In 1924 the total was reduced to 2 percent of those born outside of the United States present in 1890, and quotas were adjusted to proportions of immigrant European nationalities in 1890. “Aliens ineligible for citizenship” were generally barred from entering. The 1929 national origins system was based on the estimated distribution of nationalities among the entire 1920 population, not just among those born outside of the United States. • • • • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Information List Summary of Causes for Tensions over Immigration, 1880–1925 • Response to new groups with unfamiliar cultures, languages, and religions. Commonly, ethnic characteristics persisted well after arrival with the aid of community groups, organizations, churches, etc. Resentment over the large numbers of newcomers, despite the high rate of those returning to homelands (overall one-third, but one-half or more among specific groups) and remittances to homelands in the many millions of dollars, as well as the establishment of immigrant/ethnic enclaves in the United States. Pseudo-sciences exaggerated links between culture, initial levels of intelligence, and “races” [nationalities]. Americans’ fears about immigrant loyalties, ties to homelands, seemingly low rates of citizenship, and perceived failure of Americanization efforts. There was an association of immigrants with ills of urbanization because most lived and worked in urban areas during this period. Immigrants were also associated with strikes, riots, Red Scare, assassinations, alcohol, and crime. Immigrants were seen as economic threat and job competitors. Overseas United States involvement reinforced Americans’ sense of white superiority and the belief that other, non-WASP groups (new immigrants) were nonwhite and inferior—and likely to retain such (inherited) characteristics. • • • • • • Summary of Governmental Responses to Tensions Arising Due to Immigration • Federalization of controls over immigration and naturalization, including the opening of Ellis Island and then Angel Island, along with the establishment of the Bureaus of Immigration and Naturalization. Ban on Chinese laborers and their spouses; agreement to curtail migration of Japanese laborers (but not, initially, extended to spouses); establishment of the Asiatic Barred Zone, subsequently replaced by Asian-Pacific Triangle and a flat ban on most aliens ineligible for citizenship (Asians). Defined and extended the categories of individuals not to be admitted because of physical, mental, moral, economic, or political (anarchists) reasons as well as those seeking to enter already possessing labor contracts. Codification of immigration and naturalization laws, tightening rules and requirements, and also expanding rules affecting American-born women marrying noncitizens and Asians, until partially modified in 1922. • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Information List (continued) • • Screening of aliens prior to admission included physical exams, literacy tests, collection of head taxes and proof of minimum financial resources, and then quotas by nationality. Supported programs to promote Americanization of immigrants already in the United States. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Analyze the reasons for the Anti-Federalists’ opposition to ratifying the Constitution. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis setting forth the Anti-Federalists’ opposition to the ratification of the United States Constitution. • Provides substantial, relevant information detailing the various arguments behind their opposition to ratification. • Provides effective analysis of the principal grounds underlying their opposition to ratification. • Is well organized and well written. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, setting forth the Anti-Federalists’ opposition to the ratification of the United States Constitution. • Provides some relevant information profiling the Anti-Federalists’ various arguments against ratification. • Analyzes to some degree the principal grounds underlying their opposition to ratification. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be confused, simplistic, or undeveloped in terms of setting forth the Anti-Federalists’ opposition to ratification of the United States Constitution; or presents no thesis. • Includes little relevant information concerning the Anti-Federalists’ arguments against ratification. • Has little analysis of the principal grounds underlying their opposition to ratification. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Includes no relevant information concerning the Anti-Federalists’ opposition to ratification of the Constitution. • Contains no analysis of the grounds underlying their opposition to the ratification of the Constitution. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain numerous errors, both major and minor. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Information List • • Foremost were Anti-Federalists’ concerns over the absence of any Bill of Rights and over states’ rights. Anti-Federalists feared centralized power and the loss of state powers, states’ rights, and autonomy to the federal government under the Constitution, which was to be the supreme law of the land. Many also feared creating too great a distance between the people and the government. Anti-Federalists believed that the government was a contract between equals and not a step toward strong central government, and that the heart of the revolution was the protection of liberties and state powers. Some saw the Constitution as a betrayal of those principles. Some Anti-Federalists expressed fear of a strong executive, the abuse of power (via the elastic clause), and cabals. Some Anti-Federalists expressed fear regarding the federal government’s proposed power to levy taxes, regulate trade, and raise an army. Some Anti-Federalists were concerned about the protection of minority rights and majoritarian abuses. Some Anti-Federalists feared the judicial branch because of experiences preceding the Revolution. Some Anti-Federalists were concerned about big states dominating small states. Some AntiFederalists felt that a large republican form of government, or a republic of republics, could not work. Some Anti-Federalists were concerned that members of Congress, representing so many persons in each district, would tend to be limited to wealthy persons, resulting in an oligarchy. Some Anti-Federalists maintained that the ratification procedure for the Constitution was illegal because the existing Articles of Confederation provided for unanimous votes for amendments—the Constitution was viewed as an amendment to the Articles. Some opposed the phrase “We the People” in favor of “We the States.” Some Anti-Federalists were concerned about the size of Congress (65 representatives in the House and 26 in the Senate) and how few persons it would take to constitute a quorum and conduct national affairs. Some Anti-Federalists objected to the provision continuing the slave trade for 20 years or the failure to abolish it; others feared a further assault on slavery. Anti-Federalists felt there was not enough democracy in the Constitution and that elections would not be held often enough. • • • • • • • • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Information List (continued) • Readers saw student misinterpretations regarding the power to tax, the power to intervene in state laws, the presence of a Bill of Rights under the Articles of Confederation (as opposed to under state constitutions), Anti-Federalists as probusiness (if anything, the Federalists were probusiness), social differences between Federalists and Anti-Federalists (there were no significant differences between the leadership of both groups), provisions for paying state debts (that only emerged later), and Federalists being pro-British (that was also later). Readers also saw misinterpretations regarding Republicans versus Federalists, Alexander Hamilton’s economic plan, and Thomas Jefferson’s conflict with Hamilton. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 Use TWO of the following categories to analyze the ways in which African Americans created a distinctive culture in slavery. Family Music Oral traditions Religions The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis addressing the ways African American slaves created a distinctive culture in two of the given categories. • Supports the thesis with substantial, relevant information illustrating how slaves created a distinctive culture in two of the categories. • Effectively analyzes the ways that slaves created a distinctive culture in two of the areas; coverage of the two may be somewhat uneven. • Is well organized and well written. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, addressing the ways that African American slaves created a distinctive culture in two of the given categories. • Provides some relevant information illustrating how slaves created a distinctive culture in two of the categories. • Essay analyzes to some degree the ways that slaves created a distinctive culture in two of the categories; coverage of the two may not be balanced. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be confused, simplistic, or undeveloped in terms of addressing the ways that African American slaves created a distinctive culture in two of the given categories; or presents no thesis. • Includes little relevant information illustrating how slaves created a distinctive culture in two categories. • Contains little analysis of the ways that slaves created a distinctive culture in two categories; or may cover only one category. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Includes no relevant information concerning the ways that African American slaves created a distinctive culture. • Contains no analysis of the ways that slaves created a distinctive culture. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain numerous errors, both major and minor. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 (continued) The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 Information List Several broad factors cut across these categories, including • • • • Survival of elements of West African customs, languages, traditions, family patterns, and religious practices. The influence of slaves who ran off and established hidden communities. More recently arrived slaves during the nineteenth century who sustained some African practices. Activities by slaves living and working in more urban settings, enabling them to meet, develop, share, and sustain practices and customs, such as in Congo Square in New Orleans, where Sunday meetings were permitted. Autonomy on larger plantations that enabled slaves to gather and sustain language, traditions, and practices. The influence of rebel leaders, such as Gabriel, Nat Turner, and Denmark Vesey, as well as conjurers, in sustaining customs, practices, religious beliefs, etc. In addition to West African survivals, the blending of influences from the Spanish and French in terms of language, culture, and religion. • • • Family • • • • Emphasis on informal family arrangements, extended family ties, and the role of “fictive kin”— fellow slaves regarded as “family” although not actually linked by blood ties. Developed sense of community, especially on the larger plantations, whereby families were aided by others, and children were cared for by all those living there. Because of the breakup of many families, children were often raised primarily by the mothers, creating female-centered household traditions that persisted after slavery. Many families were broken up by the sale of a member of the family, and yet family connections were often preserved (and many rejoined after the Civil War). Slaves who were sold and moved on to new plantations/farms connected with others who had family members in previous settings from which they had come reinforced many such informal linkages. Naming traditions (families giving a name different from that imposed by the slaveowner). • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 Information List (continued) Music • Instruments and music styles brought over from Africa and preserved in the United States included stringed instruments (banjo, fiddle, and mandolin), gourds, drums, clapping, and freer bodily expressions such as dancing and the “shout.” Gospels, hymns, and spirituals created in religious settings; songs that evolved while working in fields (especially to provide work rhythms) and as expressions of resistance and protest, often in Creole or pidgin English not understood by most whites. Many slaves attended white churches and picked up and expanded on practices observed there as well as in urban settings, and in churches begun by free African Americans. Subsequent renowned styles of music, such as the blues and jazz, evolved out of the various styles sustained during slavery, with regional variations. • • • Oral traditions • Heavy reliance on models of oral traditions brought over from Africa and further developed; spread by fugitives, griots, conjurers and shamans (thought to have spiritual or magical powers), slaves sold in the Deep South, and black preachers who embraced Christianity, especially because most white communities prohibited the teaching of literacy to slaves. On larger plantations and in urban settings, African Americans were able to meet, especially in the evenings after work, and such occasions were used to disseminate oral traditions and beliefs in their ultimate liberation. Influence of Creole, pidgin English, and distinct language variations, such as the Gullah dialect, added to the distinctive oral traditions among slaves and free African Americans. Use of folk tales, such as Br’er Rabbit, that taught lessons about surviving under oppression. • • • Religion • • Some religious practices (such as call and response, rhythmic clapping), as well as some elements of Islam, were brought from Africa and sustained and emulated in America. Blending traditions (including voodoo) recalled from Africa. Practices were adapted from Europeans and Americans, e.g., Catholicism in locations where the Spanish and French colonized and Protestantism where the British colonized. This was especially true in areas where slaves attended services in segregated white churches. Ideas and practices were disseminated by African American preachers, rebel leaders, abolitionists, and groups such as the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, as well as in churches begun by free African Americans (especially in urban settings). • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 Information List (continued) • While Christianity was presented to slaves as demanding subservience and obedience, the slaves interpreted it as a message of liberation and understood Christ as ministering to the poor and oppressed, not to the rich and oppressive. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Analyze the extent to which the Spanish-American War was a turning point in American foreign policy. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis assessing the extent to which the Spanish-American War was a turning point in United States foreign policy. • Provides substantial, relevant information detailing the extent to which the war marked a turning point in United States foreign policy. • Provides effective analysis of the extent to which the war marked a turning point in United States foreign policy. • Is well organized and well written. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, assessing the extent to which the SpanishAmerican War was a turning point in United States foreign policy. • Provides some relevant information detailing the extent to which the war marked a turning point in United States foreign policy. • Analyzes to some degree the extent to which the war marked a turning point in United States foreign policy. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be confused, simplistic, or undeveloped in terms of assessing the extent to which the Spanish-American War was a turning point in United States foreign policy; or presents no thesis. • Includes little relevant information concerning the extent to which the war marked a turning point in United States foreign policy. • Has little analysis of the extent to which the war marked a turning point in United States foreign policy. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Includes no relevant information concerning the extent to which the Spanish-American War marked a change in United States foreign policy. • Contains no analysis of the extent to which the war was a turning point in United States foreign policy. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain numerous errors, both major and minor. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Information List • Spanish-American War (1898) represented a major step away from generations of a foreign policy that, for most part, emphasized isolationism with respect to most areas beyond the continental United States. The war represented the first major military engagement beyond United States borders since the Mexican-American War (1846-48) and led to an assertion of United States interests throughout the Caribbean and into the western Pacific region, laying the groundwork for major shifts in policies, culminating in (and after) the First World War. As a result of the defeat of Spain, the United States eventually established control, or took possession, of the Philippines (1898), Puerto Rico, Cuba, and then Midway, Guam, Wake Island, and (American) Samoa (1899). At the same time the United States formally annexed Hawaii as well. The war’s outcome led to huge increases in the United States naval budget and United States military involvement in the Philippines, resulting in a three-year war (1899–1902) to pacify the Filipino people. The Spanish-American War accelerated policies promoting overseas investments, later referred to as “dollar diplomacy” under President Taft (1909-13). Before that, this expanded policy could be seen in the Open Door policy regarding China (1899–1900). It could also be seen in President Theodore Roosevelt’s engineering a revolt in Panama against the Colombian government (1903) and then negotiating for the Panama Canal Zone and construction of the Panama Canal (completed in 1914). These events were stepping stones to Theodore’s Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine and the United States assertion of a sphere of influence over the Caribbean for strategic reasons (1904). Following from that policy position came United States intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Mexico, and the purchase of the Danish West Indies (renamed the Virgin Islands) to keep German influence out of the region (1906-17). Roosevelt was impacted by Alfred Thayer Mahan’s “Influence of Sea Power on America,” which called for a large navy, control of the Caribbean, and construction of an interocean canal in Central America. Roosevelt’s decision to send the Great White Fleet (much of the United States Navy) around the world (1907-09), and especially to Japan, was a bold step to assert United States claims to the role of a major player in international diplomacy, as had been his mediation of the Russo-Japanese War two year earlier (1905). The culmination of two decades of policy changes came with President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points and assertion of leadership on the world stage following the First World War (1918). Yet the outcome was the general ineffectiveness of the United States at the Versailles negotiations after the war (1919). The subsequent United States retreat to a neoisolationism, a consequence of Americans’ disillusionment with its aggressive foreign policies, can be seen as the end of the first phase of the United States major changes in foreign policy as a result of the Spanish-American War. • • • • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Information List (continued) • Students may or may not extend the argument into the Second World War and postwar era but must deal with the above issues first; they must carry their analysis at least through the end of Theodore Roosevelt’s administration. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 Analyze the extent to which the 1920s and 1950s were similar in TWO of the following areas. Impact of technology Intolerant attitudes Literary developments The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis assessing the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in two of the given areas. • Supports the thesis with substantial, relevant information illustrating the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in the selected areas. • Effectively analyzes the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in two of the given areas; coverage of the two may be somewhat uneven. • Is well organized and well written. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, assessing the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in two of the given areas. • Provides some relevant information illustrating the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in the two selected areas. • Essay analyzes to some degree the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in two areas; coverage of the two may not be balanced. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be confused, simplistic, or undeveloped in terms of assessing the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in two given areas; or presents no thesis. • Includes little relevant information illustrating the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in two given areas. • Contains little analysis of the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in two areas; or may cover only one category or only one time period. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Includes no relevant information on the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s in two given areas. • Contains no analysis of the extent of similarities between the 1920s and 1950s. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain numerous errors, both major and minor. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 Information List In many respects the 1950s was both more of the same as in the 1920s and yet marked by important innovations and changes in direction. Technology Many aspects of mass culture that surface in the 1920s would be magnified in the 1950s along with new technologies of production and distribution. Breakthroughs in medicine were matched by breakthroughs in the technology of war. In both periods there were elements of dramatic changes. The 1920s saw advances in silent and sound movies, phonographs, automobiles, airplanes, home appliances, the telephone, mass circulation of magazines, and an emphasis on consumer products and consumer buying on credit: refrigerators, washing machines, electric irons, vacuum cleaners, and the introduction of auto service stations, grocery stores, and new techniques of advertising. The 1920s marked the beginning of the radio age, as the 1950s would be the beginning of the age of television. The decade also saw the extensive electrification of the United States along with the beginning of highway construction and the enormous impact of the automobile on American life and manners. Symbolizing the advances and its identification with American character and culture was Charles Lindbergh’s solo flight to Europe. The 1950s witnessed innovations in televisions (setting the decade as the era of television and its immense cultural impact), continued mass production of mainstream magazines that influenced American culture as did TV sitcoms, jet planes, faster means of travel and federal funding of interstate highways (contributing to a resurgence of movement to the suburbs), improved kitchen appliances, mass production of houses (Levittown), along with other life-saving innovations such as the polio vaccine and other antibiotics. Technology represented the potential destructiveness of nuclear war and the environmental consequences of technological advances, but also the promise of a better world, represented by the growth of electronics and the introduction of computers, and scientific advancements, symbolized by Sputnik. Intolerance The intolerance so widespread during the 1920s had not entirely died out by the 1950s, but entrenched opponents to reform now found major changes taking place nonetheless, with a number of minority groups now better prepared to fight for change. The 1920s were marked by the extremes of the Ku Klux Klan at its political peak, the pervasiveness of Jim Crow laws in the South, violence against African Americans and continued lynchings, as well as heightened concerns and dissatisfaction with southern and eastern European immigrants, especially those tied to homelands or espousing left-wing political ideas. Anti-radicalism, anti-Catholicism, and antiSemitism contributed to the concerns fueling the movement to restrict immigration. Fundamentalism expanded and gained notoriety with the Scopes trial. Reactions to the Scopes trial and the trial of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, executed on the basis of insubstantial evidence despite strong protests, revealed the climate of intolerance of the decade, as did the anti-Catholicism that contributed to Al Smith’s defeat in the 1928 presidential election. Additionally, the Catholic Church displayed intolerance of Mexicans in the Southwest because of cultural differences in their Catholicism. The Roaring Twenties masked considerable prejudice against minority races and immigrants. The 1950s continued to see racial violence and lynchings and racial murders (including that of Emmett Till), a resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, and the formation of the Citizens Councils. However, the United © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 Information List (continued) States also began to see desegregation in the military, in baseball, and in schools (as a result of Brown v. Board of Education), followed by boycotts against segregated public transportation (Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr.), Little Rock High School, and the 1957 Civil Rights Act. Practices that were widespread in the 1920s began to come under attack, with a new generation more willing to fight prejudice, particularly among African Americans and Mexican Americans. There was also a marked decline in anti-Semitism and wider acceptance of the United States as a nation of Judeo–Christian traditions—that is, an America based on toleration of Protestants, Catholics, and Jews. Ethnic identities were muted; religious ones were celebrated. There was a renewed fear of communism, and many leftists were seen as communists. The latter were compelled to testify or were forced out of jobs. The Julius and Ethel Rosenberg case and their execution for spying reinforced apprehensions. McCarthyism prevailed for a time, and political dissent was viewed with much fear, as shown in the passage of the McCarran Internal Security and Immigration Acts. The official adoption of “One Nation Under God” as a national motto to be included on currency and elsewhere and “under God” in the pledge of allegiance also could be a sign of intolerance to atheists. (Students interpreted fear of communism as intolerance of communists. Many of the essays viewed the communist issue as the only problem of intolerance in the two periods.) Literature The literature of the 1920s expressed the outburst of African American culture as well as the works of many other American authors analyzing, questioning, critiquing elements of American life. While the resurgence of black culture would actually take place in the 1960s, there was an array of minority/ethnic writers who were depicting life and culture in their groups, while here, too, an array of other American authors were analyzing and dissecting American society as their forebears had done in the 1920s. Literature in the 1920s included two important streams: one associated with the Harlem Renaissance, including Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Jean Toomer, and Zora Neale Hurston; and a second stream that included those taking a more critical view of American society and the superficiality of the 1920s, or trying to capture the radical cultural changes associated with Prohibition and the Roaring Twenties. The latter included William Faulkner, F. Scott Fitzgerald, H. L. Mencken, Walter Lippmann, Eugene O’Neill, Sinclair Lewis, and Ernest Hemingway. Some of the writers were included among those known as the Lost Generation. Another significant development roughly associated with literature in the 1920s was the emergence of the mass circulation magazines, including Saturday Evening Post, Look, Life, Reader’s Digest, and Lady’s Home Journal. The 1950s saw important works that challenged the postwar United States and the conformity that reflected the banality of the decade. Some works were beginning to challenge the pressures toward consensus, such as Jack Kerouac’s On the Road, David Reisman’s The Lonely Crowd, Vance Packard’s The Hidden Persuaders, and William Whyte’s The Organization Man. Other works, such as those by Norman Mailer, portrayed Second World War experiences. As James Baldwin and Ralph Ellison expressed much of the African American experiences, Philip Roth and Bernard Malamud depicted Jewish American life, and Alan Ginsberg portrayed the Beat fringe and an emerging counterculture. While such signs of change were just beginning and a new era of literature would soon flourish in the 1960s, especially in reaction to the 1950s, the movies, television, and magazine mass media captured the emphases on religion and family, symbolized by the massive sales of Benjamin Spock’s Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2010 for the course BIOMIC Bio765 taught by Professor Sangte during the Spring '10 term at Eastern Oregon.

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